The Virginia Gazette. Number 1249, July 15, 1775
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July 15, 1775. Number 1249.
IN CIVITATE LIBERA LINGUAM MENTEMQUE LIBERAS ESSE DEBERE. ——- SUIT. in Tie. S.28.
The following is a copy of a Letter from General LEE to General
BOURGOYNE, upon his arrival in BOSTON.
PHILDELPHIA, June 7, 1775.
My Dear Sir,
We have had twenty different accounts of
your arrival at Boston, which have been
regularly contradicted the next morn-
ing; but as I now find it certain that
you are arrived, I shall not delay a single
instant addressing myself to you. It is
a duty I owe to the friendship I have
long and sincerely professed for you; a
friendship to which you have the strong-
est claims from the first moments of our
acquaintance. There is no man from
whom I have received so many testimonies of esteem and affection;
there is no man whose esteem and affection could, in my opinion,
have done me greater honor. I entreat and conjure you, there-
fore, my dear Sir, to impute these lines not to a petulant itch of
feribbling, but to the most unfeigned solicitude for the future
tranquillity of your mind, and for your reputation. I sincerely
lament the infatuation of the times, when men of such a stamp
as Mr. Bourgoyne and Mr. Howe can be seduced into so impious
and nefarious a service by the artifice of a wicked and insidious
Court and Cabinet. You, Sir, must be sensible that these epithets
are not unjustly severe. You have yourself experienced the wick-
edness and treachery of this Court and Cabinet. You cannot but
recollect their manoeuvers in your own select committee, and the
treatment yourself, as President, received from these abandoned
men. You cannot but recollect the black business of St. Vin-
cents’s, by an opposition to which you acquired the highest and
most deserved honour. I shall not trouble you with my opinion
of the right of taxing America without her own consent, as I am
afraid, from what I have seen of your speeches, that you have al-
ready formed your creed on this article; but I will boldly affirm,
had this right been established by a thousand statutes, had Ameri-
ca admitted it from the time immemorial, it would be the duty of
every good Englishman to exert his utmost to divest Parliament of
this right, as it must inevitably work the subversion of the whole
empire. The malady under which the state labors is indisputably
derived from the inadequate representation of the subject, and the
vast pecuniary influence of the Crown. To add to this pecuniary
influence and incompetency of representation is to insure and pre
cipitate our destruction. To wish any addition can fearcely enter
the heart of a citizen who has the least spark of public virture, and
who is at the same time capable of seeing consequences the most
immediate. I appeal, Sir, to your own conscience, to your ex-
perience and knowledge of our Court and Parliament; and I re-
quest you to lay your hand upon your heart, and then answer with
your usual integrity and frankness, whether, on the supposition
America should be abject enough to submit to the terms imposed,
you think a single guinea raised upon her would be applied to the
purpose (as it is ostentatiously held out to deceive the people at
home) of easing the mother country; or whether you are not con-
vinced that the whole they could extract would be applied solely
to heap up still further the enormous fund for corruption, which
the Crown already possesses, and of which the most diabolical use
is made? On these principles I say, Sir, every good Englishman,
abstracted of all regard for America, must oppose her being taxed
by the British Parliament: For my own part, I am convinced
that no argument (not totally abhorrent from the spirit of liberty
and the British constitution) can be produced in support of this
right. But it would be impertinent to trouble you upon a subject
which has been so amply, and in my opinion so fully discussed.
I find, by a speech given as your’s in the papers, that it was by
the King’s positive command you embarked in this service. I am
somewhat pleased that it is not an office of your own seeking,
though, at the same time, I must confess that it is very alarming
to every virtuous citizen, when he sees men of sense and integrity
(because of a certain profession) lay it down as a rule implicitly
to obey the mandates of a Court, be they ever so flagitious. It
furnishes, in my opinion the best arguments for the total reduc-
tion of the army. But I am running into a tedious essay, where-
as I ought to confine myself to the main design and purpose of
this letter, which is to guard you and your colleagues from those
prejudices which the same miscreants, who have infatuated Gene-
ral Gage, and still surround him, will labour to instil into you
against a brave, loyal, and most deserving people. The avenues
of truth will be shut up to you. I assert, Sir, that even General
Gage will deceive you, as he has deceived himself. I do not say
he will do it designedly; I do not think him capable. But his
mind is so totally poisoned, and his understanding so totally blind-
ed, by the society of fools and knaves, that he no longer is ca-
pable of discerning facts as manifest as the noon day sun. I as
sert, Sir, that his letters to the Ministry (at least such as the pub-
lic have seen) are one continued tissue of misrepresentation, in-
justice, and tortured inferences from mis-stated facts. I affirm,
Sir, that he has taken no pains to inform himself of the truth;
that he has never conversed with a man who has had the courage
or honesty to tell him the truth. I am apprehensive that you and
your colleagues may fall into the same trap, and it is the appre-
hension that you may be inconsiderately hurried, by the vigour
and activity you possess, into measures which may be fatal to many
innocent individuals, may hereafter wound your own feelings,
and which cannot possibly serve the cause of those who sent you,
that has prompted me to address these lines to you. I most de-
voutly wish that your industry, valor, and military talents, may
be reserved for a more honourable and virtuous service against the
natural enemies of your country (to whom our Court are so basely
complacent) and not in ineffectual attempts to reduce to the
wretchedest state of servitude, the most meritorious part of your
fellow subjects. I say, Sir, that any attempts to accomplish this
purpose must be ineffectual. You cannot possibly succeed. No
man is better acquainted with the state of this continent than my-
self. I have ran through almost the whole colonies, from the
north to the south, and from the south to the north. I have con-
versed with all orders of men, from the first estated Gentlemen to
the lowest planters and farmers, and can assure you that the same
spirit animates the whole. Not less than 150,000 Gentlemen,
yeomen, and farmers, are now in arms, determined to preserve
their liberties or perish. As to the idea that the Americans are
deficient in courage, it is too ridiculous and glaringly false to de-
serve a serious refutation. I never could conceive upon what this
notion was founded. I served several campaigns in America last
war, and cannot recollect a single instance of ill behaviour in the
provincials, where the regulars acquitted themselves well. In-
deed we well remember some instances of the reverse, particularly
where the late Col. Grant (he who lately pledged himself for the
general cowardice of America) ran away with a large body of his
own regiment, and was saved from destruction by the valour of a
few Virginians. Such preposterous agruments are only proper for
Rigby’s and Sandwich’s, from whose mouths never issued, and
to whose breasts, truth and decency are utter strangers. You will
much oblige me in communicating this letter to General Howe,
to whom I could wish it should be considered in some measure ad-
dressed, as well as to yourself. Mr. Howe is a man for whom I
have ever had the highest love and reverence. I have honoured
him for his own connexions, but above all for his admirable ta-
lents and good qualities. I have courted his acquaintance and
friendship, not only as a pleasure, but as an ornament: I flat-
tered myself that I had obtained it. Gracious God! is it possible
that Mr. Howe should be prevailed upon to accept of such an
office! That the brother of him, to whose memory the much in-
jured people of Boston erected a monument, should be employed
as one of the instruments of their destruction. But the fashion of
the times, it seems, is such as renders it impossible he should avoid
it. The commands of our most gracious Sovereign are to cancel
all moral obligations, to sanctify every action, even those that the
Satrap of an eastern Despot would start at. I shall now beg leave
to say a few words with respect to myself, and the part I act: I
was bred up, from my infancy, in the highest veneration for the
liberties of mankind in general. What I have seen of Courts and
Princes convinces me, that power cannot be lodged in worse hands
than in theirs; and of all Courts I am persuaded that ours is the
most corrupt and hostile to the rights of humanity. I am con-
vinced that a regular plan has been laid (indeed every act since the
present accession evinces it) to abolish even the shadow of liberty
from amongst us. It was not the demolition of the tea, it was
not any other particular act of the Bostonians, or of the other pro-
vinces, which constituted their crimes; but it is the noble spirit
of liberty, pervading the whole continent, which has rendered
them the objects of ministerial and royal vengeance. Had they
been notoriously of another disposition, had they been homines ad
servitudinem parates, they might have made as free with the pro-
perty of the East India Company as the felonious North himself,
with impunity. But the Lords of St. James’s, and their merce-
naries of St. Stephen’s, will know, that as long as the free spirit
of this great continent remains unsubdued, the progress they can
make in their scheme of universal despotism will be but trifling.
Hence is it that they wage inexpiable war against America. In
short, this is the last asylum of persecuted liberty. Here, should
the machinations and fury of her enemies prevail, that bright god-
dess must fly off from the face of the earth, and leave not a trace
behind. These, Sir are my principles; this is my persuasion,
and sonsequentially I am determined to act. I have now, Sir,
only to entreat, that whatever measures you pursue, whether those
which your real friends (myself amongst them) would wish, or
unfortunately those which our accursed misrulers shall dictate, you
will stll believe me to be personally, with the greatest sincerity
and affection. Your’s, &c. C.LEE.
NEW YORK, JUNE 26.
THE ship Juliana, Capt. Montgomery, arrived at Sandy
Hook last Saturday night, from London, in which vesssel
our worthy Governor came passenger. He landed at 8 o’clock yes-
terday evening, and was conducted to the house of the Hon. Hugh
Wallace, Esq; by an immense number of the principal people of
Yesterday arrived here from Philidelphia, on their way for the
camp at Boston, General Washington, appointed by the Hon.
Continental Congress commander in chief of all the provincial
troops in North America, attended by the Generals Lee and
Schuyler: They were escorted by a party of light horse: The
Generals landed at the seat of Col. Lispenard about 4 o’clock yes-
terday afternoon, from whence they were conducted by nine
companies of foot, in their uniforms, and a greater number of the
principal inhabitants of this city, than ever appeared here on any
Extract of a letter from a Gentleman at PROVIDENCE [45 miles
from BOSTON] to his friend in this city dated June 20, 1775.
”You doubtless have been alarmed with divers accounts of
the contest which happened on the 17th instant, between the King’s
troops and our army; shall give you a narrative in a few words, as
the post now waits.
”On the evening of the 16th, Col Putnam took possession of
Bunker’s Hill, with about 2000 men, and began an entrench-
ment, which they had made some progress in. At 8 in the morn-
ing, a party of regulars landed at Charlestown, and fired the
town in divers places. Under cover of the smoke, a body of
5000 men marched up to our entrenchments, and made a furious
and sudden attack; they were drove back three times; and when
they were making the third attack, one of our people imprudently
spoke aloud that their powder was all gone; which being heard
by some of the regular officers, they encouraged their men to
march up to the trenches with fixed bayonets, and entered them;
on which our people were ordered to retreat, which they did with all
speed, till they got out of musket shot; they then formed, but were
not pursued: In the mean time six men of war, and four floating
batteries were brought up, and kept up a continual fire on the
causeway that leads on to Charlestown; our people retreated
through the fire, but not without the loss of many of the men.
Our loss is 60 men killed and missing, and about 140 wounded.
The brave Dr. Warren is among the former, and Col. Gardiner
among the latter. We left 6 field pieces on the hill; our people
are now entrenched on Pleasant Hill, within cannon shot of
Bunker’s Hill. The loss of the King’s troops must be very con-
sideralbe; the exact number we cannot tell. If our people had
been supplied with ammunition they would have held possession
most certainly. They have begun firing on Roxbury, with car-
cases to set it on fire, but have not yet succeeded. Our people
are in high spirits, and are very earnest to put this matter on another
PHILADELPHIA, JUNE 28.
Yesterday arrived here an expess from the American
camp, who brought letters to the Congress, by him we have the following:
Extract of a letter from WEATHERSFIELD, JUNE 22, 1775.
”Before this, you must know (I conclude) that there has
been a battle, in which fell the honourable, the noble, Doctor
Warren. For fear you may not have the particulars, I will en-
deavour in part to relate to you how the affair was, as by the best
account I can gather from letters from the camp: —Last Friday
afternoon, orders were issued for about 1800 of the provincial
troops and 200 of the Connecticut, to parade themselves at six
o’clock with one day’s provision, equipped with packs, blankets,
&c. their orders were given at 9 o’clock, and they marched with
their teams, trenching tools, &c. on Bunker’s Hill, to heave up
an entrenchment, which you are sensible is near the water, ships,
&c. they worked most surprisingly that night, and were discovered
at sun-rise by a sailor from the mast head; the British army began
a fire from Cop’s Hill near Cotton’s church, in Boston, and from
all the ships that could be brought to play, which continued till
near eight. About one o’clock P. M. the Americans at Cam-
bridge heard that the regulars were landing from their floating
batteries, and the alarm was sounded, and they were ordered
down to the breast work at Charlestown. Before it was posssible,
Capt. Chester writes me, he could get there, the battle had begun
in earnest, and cannon and musket ball were plenty about their
ears: Chester and my brother both were in the engagement; they
reinforced our men that had left the breast work, in fine order,
though they passed through the cannonading of the ships, bombs,
chain shot, ting shot, double headed shot, &c. but then their su-
perior number of artillery and number of men, for they were
to 2, forced our men to retreat, after a warm engagement of one
hour and a half. Thank Heaven but few of our men fell, con-
sidering the advantage they had of us; our men were much fa-
tigued with working at the entrenchments, and I believe not in the
best preparation in the world to meet an enemy. Add to this
terrible scene, the British troops, to their eternal disgrace, shame,
and barbarity, set Charlestown on fire with torches. My brother
says, we were obliged to retreat upon Prospect Hill, where we
made a stand, and said we would all die before we would retreat
any further; but the British troop did not think fit to come out
from under protection of their shipping. The loss of Americans
is supposed to be of wounded, missing, and slain, about 120. A
large genteel well dressed Gentleman that first mounted our breast
work, was overset by one of our impudent Americans, who took
so good aim as to prevent his ever mounting another, as he tum-
bled him into the entrenchment, just as he cried, the day is our
own. We greatly rejoice to hear of the coming of the good, the
brave, and great, General Washington; we shall receive him with
The following is the copy of a note sent to Col. LINCOLN.
HINGHAM, Monday, June, 19, 1775.
”Yesterday I came out of Boston, at two o’clock, A. M. I
heard the officers and soldiers say, that they were sure that they
had 1000 or more men killed and wounded, that they were car-
rying the wounded from four o’clock on Saturday till I came away.
General Howe, commanded the troops. They buried their dead
at Charlestown; among the dead was Major Pitcairn, and a great
many other officers. There were 5000 soldiers went out of Boston,
The soldiers and officers exult very much upon taking our lines.
The following was added by a Gentleman who forwarded the above
to this city.
”June 20, 1775. The above account of Capt. Brandford’s is
confirmed by two other channels, and agree.>
Extract of a letter from CAMBRIDGE, June 20,
”We have just received an account by a man who is said to
have swam out of Boston, that we killed and wounded 1000 of
the Ministerial troops, among which is a General, Majors Sheriff
and Pitcairn, and 60 other officers killed and 70 wounded. The
whole of the troops landed at Charlestown, were 5000.
”In this action fell our worthy and much lamented friend Dr.
Warren, with as much glory as Wolfe, after performing many
feats of bravery, and exhibiting a coolness of conduct, which did
honour to the judgement of his country, in appointing him a few
days before, one of our Major Generals.”
Extract of a letter from HARTFORD, June 23.
”Mr. Adams and Mr. Alcot, arrived from the provincial
camp at Cambridge, which they left Wednesday at four o’clock,
in the afternoon; their account is as follows: Two hundered of
the provincials killed, wounded, and taken prisoners. Officers
killed, Major Moore, Dr. Warren, a Colonel, and a Captain,
whose names are unknown. The New Hampshire regiment sus-
tained the greatest loss in the engagement. The number of regu-
lars at this battle were between 4 and 5000, 1000 of which are
killed and wounded.
”The provincials who opposed them were about 2000, who
repulsed the regulars three times.
”The provincials were entrenched at Breed’s Hill, and were
there first attacked; they are now entrenched on Prospect Hill, and
the regulars are entrenched at Bunker’s Hill, so that they are now
only a mile and a half distant from each other.
”Col. Gardiner, who was wounded, is likely to recover in a
Yesterday morning sat out from this city, for the American
camp at Cambridge, John Sul-livan, Esq; of New Hampshire,
being appointed a Brigadier General by the Honourable Con-tinen-
tal Congress. He was accompanied some distance from the city
by a detachment of the light infantry of the third battalion, and
a number of the officers of the militia, and other Gentlemen.
A LETTER to Major General DAVID WOOSTER Esquire, at
SIR, Fairfield, June 25, 1775, 12 o’clock.<
Captain Jonathan Maltre, who went express from here last
Sabbath, has this day returned from Watertown, which place he
left last Thursday at 4 o’clock in the afternoon, and the intelli-
gence brought by him being so direct, I thought it my duty to
forward it to you, which is as follows: viz.
Copy of a letter from Mr. ISAAC LATHROP, one of the Provincial
Congress at WA-TERTOWN.
Before this reaches you, you will doubtless hear of the
engagement last Saturday, be-tween our troops and those of the
army at Boston; but least you should not be well informed, I
will now undertake to give you as regular an accounted as can at
present be obtained: Last Friday evening, a detachmenet from
the camp at Cambridge, marched to Charlestown, and there took
possession of Breed’s Hill, about half a mile from the ferry, their
entrenching tools not coming up in season, it was 12 o’clock be-
fore they began their works; as soon as day-light appeared, they
were discovered from Boston, when the men of war at the ferry,
the battery from Cop’s Hill, and the floating batteries, kept up a
cannonading and bombarding, which fortunately did but little
execution, although our entrenchments were very far from being
completed; this continued till about two o’clock, when a large
army of between 4 and 5,000 (as we since hear from Boston) un-
der the com-mand of General Howe, landed on the back of the
hill, and marched with great seeming reso-lution toward our
lines: Our men reserved their fire till the enemy had advanced
very near, when a general engagement ensured; the fire from our
lines was so excessive heavy, and made such a terrible slaughter, as
obliged the enemy twice to give way, although many of their of-
ficers stood in the rear with their swords pointed at their backs
ready to run them through. Our men kept up a continual blaze
upon them for about an hour with such execution as is scarce
credible. The enemy then came on the flanks, marched up
and forced their way over the ramparts, with fixed bayonets,
cutlasses, and hand grenades, whcih obliged our little brave
army, consisting only of about 1500 men at most, to retreat.
The town of Charlestown was fired in various parts during the
action, and is now con-sumed to a wretched heap of rubbish. I
kept my ground at Watertown; but what with the thun-dering of
cannon and small arms, the conflagration of Charlestown, the
waggons and horse-litters with the wounded men coming to the
hospital in this town, and the streaming of expresses to and fro,
exhibited such an awful scene, as I pray God Almighty I may
never again behold. The brave and worthy Dr. Warren was
killed, stripped, and buried within the entrenchment. Our num-
bers killed are not yet known, but by the best account I can ob-
tain it will not much exceed 50, and the wounded short of 100.
Several credible persons have since made their escape out of Boston,
some of whom I well know. The latest out says, that upwards
of 1400 of the enemy were killed and wounded, with 84 officers,
and 28 of our men were made prisoners, and the enemy had bu-
ried 41 of our dead. All agree that the loss of the enemy in killed
and wounded, is more than 1000. General Howe says, you
may talk of your Mindens, Fontenoys, &c. but he never saw,
nor heard of such a carnage in so short a time. All the Surgeons
in the army with what they could get in Boston, were not suffici-
ent to dress the wounded. Although they were 24 hours night
and day in removing them from Charlestown, with the assistance
of many of the inhabitants of Boston, whom they pressed into the
service, many died in the streets on their way to the hospital.
N. B. Dr. Mather had his whole furniture, with his library,
plate, &c. consumed in the fire at Charlestown. I have employed
Mr. Samuel Penfield to go with this; if you think it proper to
forward this account to New York, he will be ready to serve you.
You will excuse my sending it open, as I think it is best for every
one to know with what bravery our men have acted, and how God
in his providence seems to appear for us. Mr. Penfield will also
hand you a paper from Cambridge which contains some particulars.
Iam, in the utmost haste, Sir,
Your friend and humble servant,
A letter dated in Roxbury, June 22, gives much the same
accounts of the action of the 17th, that we have in the above ac-
count, and that by the returns it apears that our loss was 58
and wounded of the regulars were 990, among whom were 70
officers including the Majors Pitcairn and Sheriff, and one gene-
”Last night some of our Indians killed three of their guards
and took a watch and 30 dol-lars. Yesterday our advanced party
at Dorchester fired into a boat that was founding, and killed 4,
on which they went off. Capt. Coit had 10 of his men wounded,
2 dangerously. We are fortifying here, and hope to give them
a warm reception when they come out; we ex-pect another visit on
the arrival of the forces which they daily expect. Col. W. of Saybrooke
says that at the time our people left the ground
we had much the better of the enemy, and only retired for want of
Extract of a letter from CHARLESTOWN, SOUTH CAROLINA,
June 10, 1775.
”Our Congress have done hard duty this week, and are still
sitting; they have resolved to raise two regiments (each 750 men)
of foot, and another of horse to consist of 450, exlusive of offi-
cers; the commmand of one regiment is to be given to Mr. Gads-
den, as chief Colonel, and Isaac Huger, as Lieutenant Colonel;
the other officers are to be determined on this evening. About
200 Gentlemen I am informed are candidates for commissions in
”We are informed the Whigs and Tories at Georgia are dis-
puting with each other, and that Governor Wright is much
alarmed for his safety; the officers of the grenadier company in
that colony, on receiving some orders from Governor Wright,
positively refused to pay any attention thereto, threw down their
commissions, and declared they would fight in defence of their
liberties.” Thursday evening arrived here the troop of light
horse, belonging to this city, after escorting Generals Washington,
Lee, and Schuyler to New Rochelle (about 20 miles beyond
New York) upon their way to the American camp at Cambridge.”
IN ASSEMBLY, JUNE 30, 1775.
The House taking into consideration, that many of the good
people of this province are conscientiously scrupulous of bearing
arms, do hereby earnestly recommend to the associa-tiors for the
defence of their country, and others, that they bear a tender and
brotherly re-gard towards this class of their fellow subjects and
countrymen; and to these conscientious people, it is also recom-
mended, that they cheerfully assist in proportion to their abili-ties,
such persons as cannot spend both time and substance in the service
of thier country, without great injury to themselves and families.
Extract from the Journals,
CHARLES MOOR, Clk. of Assembly.
Extract of a letter from a Gentleman in the township of BYGATE,
on CONNECTI-CUT river, to his father in NEW JERSEY, dated
June 10, 1775.
”The Indian and Canadian war is all vanished. We have had
positive accounts from many of the Indian tribes, who are
certainly applied to by Governor Carleton to distress the settle-
ments, but they say they have received no offence from the people,
so will not make war with them, The French say it is a war of
our own raising, and they will have no part in it.”
Extract of a letter from a Gentleman at STOCKBRIDGE, (MAS-
SACHUSETTS BAY) to a Gentleman of the Congress, dated
”A firm foundation now turns up to view, for the influence
of the Stockbridge Indians among the Six Nations, and matters
stand well with the Canadian Indians. If I had time, I would
relate to you every particular of what befel the messengers of our
Indians to the Six Nations, and the Canadian Indians. To be
short, they were taken and bound by the regulars, and carried
into Montreal, where, by a court martial they were condemned
to be hanged, for a slight suspicion that they were sent to engage
the Indians to fall upon the regulars. This event turned much
to our advantage, and has fully fixed the minds of the Indians
there against the regulars. High threatening words passed between
the General and the Indian Sa-chems, who were raised far and
near on the occasion, and a wonderful spiritof benevolence ap-
peared towards the young men that were taken by the Indians
there. They told them, in the strongest terms, That they would
take their place, they would die for them. The whole story is very
affecting. The Indian Sachems told the General, You have of-
fered us money to fight for you, but we would not take it, as we
would have nothing to do with your quarrel, but now we shall
know who are our enemies. If you think it best for you to hang
our brothers, that came a great way to see us, do it, but remember
we shall not for-get it. Upon these threatenings they thought it best
to let the prisoners go, who got away with some difficulty. The
Canadian Indians further told our Indians, That if they did fight
at all they would fight against the Regulars, for they did not like
Extract of a letter from PROVIDENCE, June 20.
”Our government have ordered two cruisers to be equipped
and sent out to protect the trade. They have re-taken Lindsey’s
packet in sight of the men of war. The men of war have taken
Mr. Gibb’s brig, with a load of flour from Philadelphia, and
have taken her cargo on board for fear she should be re-taken.”
By his Excellency the Hon. THOMAS GAGE, Governor and Com-
mander in Chief in and over his Majesty’s province of Massachu-
setts Bay, and Vice Admiral of the same.
WHEREAS the infatuated multitudes, who have long suf-
fered themselves to be con-ducted by well known incen-
diaries and traitors, in a fatal progression of crimes against the
constitutional authority of the state, have at length preceded to
avowed rebellion; and the good effects which were expected to
arise from the patience and lenity of the King’s gov-ernment have
been often frustrated, and are now rendered hopeless, by the
influence of the same evil counsels; it only remains for those who
are entrusted with supreme rule, as well for the punishment of the
guilty, as the protection of the well-affected, to prove they do
not bear the sword in vain.
The infringements which have been committed upon the most
sacred rights of the Crown and people of Great Britain, are too
many to enumerate on one side, and are all too atrocious to be
palliated on the other. All unprejudiced people who have been
witnesses of the late transactions, in this and the neighbouring
provinces, will find, upon a transient review, marks of premedi-
tation and conspiracy that would justify the fullness of chastisement.
And even those who are least acquainted with facts cannot fail to
receive a just impression of their enormity, in proportion as they
discover the arts and assiduity by which they have been falsi-fied or
concealed. The authors of the present unnatural revolt never
daring to trust their cause, or their actions, to the judgment of an
impartial public, or even to the dispassionate reflection of their
followers, have uniformly placed their chief confidence in the
suppression of truth: And while indefatigable and shameless pains
have been taken to obstruct every appeal to the real interest of the
people of America, the grossest foregeries, calumnies, and absur-
dities, that ever insulted human understanding, have been im-posed
on their credulity. The press that distinguished appendage of
public liberty, and, when fairly and impartially employed, its best
support, has been invariably prostituted to the most contrary pur-
poses; the animated language of ancient and virtuous times,
calculated to vindiate and promote the just rights and interest of
mankind, hath been applied to countenance the most abandoned
violation of those sacred blessings; and not only from the flagitious
prints, but from the popular harrangues of the times, men have
been taught to depend upon activity in treason for the security of
their persons and properties; till, to complete the horrid profana-
tion of terms, and of ideas, the name of God has been introduced
into the pulpits to excite and justify devastationo and massacre.
The minds of men having been thus gradually prepared for the
worst extremities, a num-ber of armed persons, to the amount of
many thousands, assembled on the 19th of April last, and from
behind walls and lurking holes attacked a detachment of the
King’s troops, who, not expecting so consummate an act of frenzy,
unprepared for vengeance, and willing to de-cline it, made use of
their arms only in their own defence. Since that period the re-bels,
deriving confidence from impunity, have added insult to outrage;
have repeatedly fired upon the King’s ships and subjects, with
cannon and small arms; have possessed the roads, and other com-
munications by which the town of Boston was supplied with pro-
visions; and, with a preposterous parade of military arrangements,
they affected to hold the army besieged, while part of their body
make daily and indiscriminate invasions upon pri-vate property,
and, with a wantonness of cruelty ever incident to lawless tumult,
carry depredations and distress wherever they turn their steps.
The actions of the 19th of April are of such notoriety as must baffle
all attempts to contradict them, and the flames of buildings, and
other property, from the islands, and adjacent country, for some
weeks past, spread melancholy confirmation of the subsequent
In this exigency of complicated calamities, I avail myself of
the last effort within the bounds of my duty, to spare the effusion
of blood; to offer, and I do hereby, in his Majesty’s name, offer
and promise his most gracious pardon to all persons who shall
forthwith lay down their arms, and return to the duties of peace-
able subjects, excepting only from the benefit of such pardon
SAMUEL ADAMS and JOHN HANCOCK, whose offences are of
too flagitious a nature to admit of any other consideration than
that of condign punish-ment.
And, to the end that no person within the limits of this prof-
fered mercy may plead igno-ranace of the consequences of refusing
it, I, by these presents, proclaim not only the persons above
named and excepted, but also all their adherents, associates, and
abettors, mean-ing to comprehend in those terms all and every per-
son and persons, of what class, denomi-nation, or description
soever, who have appeared in arms against the King’s govern-ment,
and shall not lay down the same as afore-mentioned; and likewise
all such as shall so take arms after the date hereof, or who shall
in any wise protect or conceal such offenders, or assist them with
money, provision, cattle, arms, ammunition, carriages, or any
other necessaries for subsistance or offence; or shall hold secret
correspondence with them by letter, message, signal, or otherwise,
to be rebels and trai-tors, and as such to be treated.
AND WHEEREAS, during the continuance of the present
unnatural rebellion, justice can-not be administered by the common
law of the land, the course whereof has for a long time past been
violently impeded, and wholly interrupted; from whence results
a necessity for using and exercising the Law Martial: I have
therefore thought fit, by the authority vested in me, by the royal
charter of this province, to publish, and I do hereby publish,
proclaim, and order the use and exercise of the Law Martial,
within and throughout this province, for so long time as the pre-
sent unhappy occasion shall necesiarily require; whereof all per-sons
are hereby required to take notice, and govern themselves, as well
to maintain order and regularity among the peaceable inhabitants
of this province, as to resist or encounter and subdue the rebels
and traitors above described, by such as shall be called upon for
To these inevitable, but I trust salutary measures, it is a far
more pleasing part of duty to add the assurances of protection and
support to all who, in so trying a crisis, shall manifest their
allegiance to the King, and affection to the parent state; so that
such persons as may have been intimidated to quit their habitations,
in the course of this alarm, may return to their respective callings
and professions, and may stand distinct and seperate from the
parricides of the constitution, till GOD in his mercy shall restore
to his creatures, in this distracted land, that system of happiness
from which they have been seduced, the reli-gion of peace and
liberty, founded upon law.
GIVEN at Boston, this 12th day of June, in the 15th year of
the reign of his Majesty GEORGE III. by the grace of
GOD, of Great Britain, France and Ireland, KING,
Defender of the Faith, &c. Annoque Domini, 1775.
By his Excellency’s com-mand,
THO’S FLUCKER, Secretary.
GOD SAVE THE KING.
As it is no longer to be doubted but a speedy and solid peace
will be concluded with the Emperor of Morocco, every body
is much surprised that the fitting out ships of war still goes on with
great diligence. The King has taken a foreign vessel into his
service, and has laid an embargo on all the transports. Several regiments are actually marching towards our sea-ports.
HAGUE, April 29.Some authentic letters from Mogador,
dated the 15th of February, mention that the Emperor of Mo-
rocco has sent letters to the Governor of that place, and to that of
the Porte, with orders to them, not in any respect to insult the
subjects of the States General established in his country, nor any
of the merchants ships which trade to that port; but, on the con-
trary, to assure them, that both themselves and their effects may
depend upon the most perfect security; as it is his Majesty’s plea-
sure, that all those who disobey his orders on that head be severely
punished. Moreover, this Prince offers all the Dutch Captains
who ask it, passports, which enable them to carry on their trade
all along the coast in safety.
May 3. A Prussian camp of 50,000 men is ordered between
Cleve and Vesel, whhich greatly alarms our neighbourhood. The
Elector of Bavaria is in a declining state of health, whose demise
will, in all appearance, occasion a new war among the Princes of
the empire about the succession to the Electoral dignity.
AMSTERDAM, May 4. If we may credit foreign intelli-
gence, great change will take place very soon in Europe. Let-
ters from Paris assure, that orders have been sent to Brest to fit
out seventeen ships of war with the utmost diligence; which gives
room for many conjectures. These letters add, that some people
are of opinion, that this squadron is to join the Sp-anish fleet, which
consists of the same number of ships, and then steer in confort to-
wards America. Others, on the contrary, suppose that this arm-
ament has no other object but to guard against the great prepara-
tions making by Great Britain to subdue her colonies.
May 11. Letters from Mogador, dated the 16th and 17th of
March last, advise, that the Emperor of Morocco had published
an order, forbidding all ships to touch at his ports, or to enter
them after sunset, or in the night, under the penalty of a fine of
1000 pieces of eight.
SALONICA, March 11. By letters from Scio, of the last
month, we learn, that an order from the Grand Seignior, enjoin-
ing all the Chrilstian women in that island, who had been married
to Turks to abandom them; and that, for the future, no Turk
should marry a Christian woman. This order is said to have been
obtained in consequence of a petition of the women of that island
to the Grand Sultaness, to whom his Highness refuses nothing.
PARIS, April 28. It is said that the Count de Guignes will
be replaced in his embassy at London by the Marquis de Noailles.
May 2. Four hundred of the corps or artillery have been sent
from Auxerre to quell the insurrection at Dijon. A battalion of
the regiment of Aunis is likewise ordered thither from Besancon,
and will remain there whilst the Prince of Conde is holding the
States of Burgundy.
LONDON, May 5.
To the Right Hon. the EARL of HERTFORD, Lord Cham-
berlain of the King’s Household.
My Lord, MANSION HOUSE, May 2, 1775.
It is impossible for me to express, or conceal, the extreme asto-
nishment and grief I felt at the notice of your Lordship’s letter
gave me, as chief magnistrate of the city, “that for the future his
”Majesty will not receive on the Throne any address, remon-
”strance, and peti-tion, but from the body corporate of the city.”
I entreat your Lordship to lay me, with all humility, at the
King’s feet, and, as I have now the honour to be chief magis-
trate, in my name to supplicate his Majestry’s justice and good-ness
in behalf of the Livery of London; that he would be graciously
pleased to revoke an order highly injurious to their rights and pri-
vileges, which in this instance have been con-stantly respected, and
carefully preserved by all his Royal predecessors. The Livery of
London, my Lord, have approved themselves the zealous friends
of Liberty and the Protestant succession. They have steadily pur-
sued only those measures which were calcu-lated to secure the free
constitution of this country; and this your Lordship well knows
has created them the hatred of all the partizans of the exiled and
proscribed family. They form the great and powerful body of
the Corporation, in whom most important powers are vested, the
election of the first Magistrate, the Sheriffs, the Chamberlain, the
auditors of the re-ceipt and expenditure of their revenues, and of
the four members who represent in Parliament the capital of this
vast empire. The full body corporate never assemble, nor could
they legally act together as one great, aggregate body; for, by the
constitution of the city, particular and distinct privileges are re-
served to the various members of the Corporation, to the Free-men,
to the Liverymen, to the Common Council, to the Court of Al-
dermen. His Majesty’s Solicitor General (Mr. Wedderburn) was
consulted by the city in the year 1771, respecting the legality of
Common Halls, and the remonstrances of the Livery. In con-
junction with Mr. Serjeant Glynn, Mr. Dunning, and Mr. Nu-
gent, he gave an opinion, which I have the honour of transcribing
from our records.
”We apprehend that the head officer of every Corporation may
”convene the body, or any class of it, whenever he thinks pro-
”per; that the Lord Mayor for the time being may, of his own
”authority, legally call a Common Hall; and we see no legal
”objection to his calling the two last: We conceive it to be the
”duty of the proper officers of the several companies, to whom
”precepts for the purpose of summoning their respective Liveries
”have been usually directed, to execute those precepts, and that
”wilful refusal on their part is an offence punishable by disfran-
The city, my Lord, have been careful that all their proceed-
ings should be grounded in the true principles of law, and the
constitution. Notwithstanding it is the clear right of the subject
to petition the King for the redress of grievances, a right which so
many thousands of our fellow subjects, my Lord, have justly
thought it their duty very frequently to exercise in the last ten years,
yet the city, from exess of caution, took a great legal opinion in
the case, and I find the following words entered in their journals
by the express order of the Common Hall.
”The Livery of London, legally assembled in Common Hall,
”either on Midsummer, Michaelmas, or any other day, have
”an undoubted right to take into consideration any matter of
“public grievance they may think proper. It is beyond dispute
”that the right is inherent in them.” A jury have likewise delared
this is a solemn verdict.
I have been thus particular, my Lord, on this subject from our
records, because I differ in one point from the last opinion, which
I quoted; for I know there is no right or privilege of this free
people, or of mankind, but what has been disputed, and even de-
nied, by petitioned pens and tongues in the service of the arbitrary
Ministers of arbitrary Kings.
Your Lordship, I am sure, will now no longer suffer a doubt
to remain in your mind as to the legality of Common Halls, or of
their extensive powers; and therefore I presume to lay claim, on
behalf of the Livery of London, to the ancient privilege of pre-
senting to the King, on the Throne, any address, petition, or
remonstrance. In this manner have the addresses of the Livery
constantly been received both by his present Majesty and all his
royal predecessors, the Kings of England. On the most exact
research I do not find a single instance to the contrary. This im-
memorial usage, in the opinion of the ablest lawyers, gives an
absolute right, and is as littrle subject to controversy as any fair and
just prerogative of the Crown. Other rights and priviledges of the
city have been invaded by despotic monarchs, by several of the
accursed race of the Stuarts; but this in no period of our history.
It has not even been brought in questions till the present inauspici-
ous era. I have an entire confidence, my Lord, that a right left
uninvaded by every tyrant of the Tarquin race will be sacredly
preserved under the government of our present Sovereign; because
his Majesty is perfectly informed, that, in consequence of their
expulsion, his family was chosen to protect and defend the rights
of a free people, whom they endeavoured to enslave.
It cannot escape your Lordship’s recollection, that at all times,
when the privileges of the capital were attacked, very fatal conse-
quences ensued. The invasion of the liberties of the nation we have
generally seen preceded by attempts on the franchises of the first
city in the kingdom, and the shock was spread from the centre to
the most distant point of the circumference of this wide extended
empire. I hope his Majesty’s goodness will revoke an order,
which might perhaps, in this light, be considered ominous to the
people at large, no less than injurious to the citizens of this me-
tropolis. Such a measure only could quiet the alarm, which
has already spread too far, and given gloomy apprehensins of
The privilege, my Lord, for which I contend, is of very great
moment, and peculiarly striking. When his Majesty receives on
the Throne any address, it is read by the proper officer to the
King, in the presence of the petitioners. They have the satisfac-
tion of knowing that their Sovereign has heard their complaints.
They receive an answer. If the same address is presented at a levee,
or in any other mode, no answer is given. A suspicion may
arise, that the address is never read, because it is only received, and
immediately delivered to the Lord in waiting. If he is tolerably
versed in the supple, insinuating arts practised in the magic circle
of a Court, he will take care not to remind his Prince of any dis-
agreeable and disgusting, however important and wholesome,
truths. He will strangle in its birth the fair offstpring of liberty,
because its cries might awaken and alarm the parent; and thus
the common father of all his people may remain equally ignorant
and unhappy in his most weighty concerns.
Important truths, my Lord, were the foundation of the last
humble address, remonstance, and petition, to the King, res-
pecting our brave fellow subjects in America. The greatness,
as well as goodness, of the cause, and the horrors of an approach-
ing civil war, justified our applications to the Throne. It com-
prehended every thing interesting to us as a free and commeercial
people, the first principles of our common liberty, and the im-
mense advantages of the only trade we enjoy unrivalled by other
nations. I greatly fear that your Lordship’s letter, immediatly
following his Majestry’s unfavourable answer to the remonstrance,
will be considered as a fresh mark of the King’s anger against our
unhappy brethren, as well as of his displeasure against the faith-
ful citizens of his capital. The Livery, possessing the purest in-
tentions, the most noble and exaulted views for the public good,
will comfort themselves with the appeal to that justice in the Sove-
reign’s heart, which cannot fail of soon restoring them to the
Royal favour; but the Americans may be driven to despair, un-
less a merciful Providence should graciously interpose, and change
the obdurate hearts of those unjust and wicked Ministers, who
have been so long permitted by divine vengence to be a scourge
both to us and our brethren. The true friends of liberty, I am
sure, will not be remiss in their duty. I doubt not, my Lord,
from that love of your country, and zeal for his Majesty’s glory,
which have equally distinguished your Lordship, that the Livery
of London will have your hearty concurrence with them, as well
as your powerful intercession with the King for the revocation of
the late order. Such a conduct will secure to your Lordship the
esteem and affection of all good men, and add to the unfeigned
respect, with which I have the honour to be,
My Lord, your Lordship’s
Most obedient, humble servant,
Extract of a letter from the HAGUE, April 14.
”We have just received advice here, that ships of war without
distinction, of every nation, are forbidden by the King of Spain,
to enter any of the ports of that kingdom; and we are assured his
motives for this step are, that it has been perceived for a long time
past, that ships which are not subjected to visitation have greatly
abused the permission granted them by the Spanish monarch, of
putting into his ports, by exporting not only a great quantity of
gold and silver in money and ingots, but also by carrying on a
contraband trade with the inhabitants, which has greatly preju-
diced the revenue of the Crown.”
Two cutters are detained at Portsmouth to carry the last instruc-
tions to the men of war and transports which lately sailed for
Corke, as well as such stores which in their hurry may have been
forgot and left behind.
Extract of a letter from PARIS, May 1.
”The coronation of the Kinng is put off till September next,
on which account all preparations are suspended at Rheims. It is
said that there has been an insurrection there on account of the
high price of corn, and that the Ministers are unwilling the King
should travel at this time, because he would be perpetually pe-
titioned by his starving subjects to relieve them from the famine
which they are likely to suffer from the avarice of monopolizers;
and which his tenderness whould incline him to make a stricter in-
quiry into than some persons wish he should do, as it would tend
much to their disgrace.”
Several of the American merchants were yesterday greatly dis-
appointed, they expecting large remittances by the New York
mail, but had none, and most of them not so much as a letter;
which circumstance caused much discontent.
Last Wednesday arrived at Birmingham, in great funeral pomp,
from Bath, the remains of the late Marquis of Lothian. The
same evening the corps lay in state at the Dolphin inn in that
town, and the next morning it was taken from thence in order to
be interred in the family vault in Scotland.
<e,>Extract of a letter from PORTSMOUTH, April 27.
”The troops are now embarking on board the transports bound
to Ireland, but it is with great reluctance, as they are apprehen-
sive that if any more troops are wanted at Boston, there will be a
draught made out of their regiments for that service; and many
of them have declared, that if that should ever be the case, they
are fully determined, when they come there, to lay down their
arms, for they will not be instrumental in the murdering their country-
men. The country people here are glad they are going, for they
have been a burthen upon the publicans in this part of England
for some time.”
Larger quantities of goods have this spring been shipped from
Bristol, for Quebec and Newfoundland, then were ever remem-
May 10. If his Majesty goes into Germany this summer, as
some about him affirm he will, he has other views beside pleasure
in the journey, and the welfare of this nation is the principal one;
the support of the honour, ease, and happiness of the Queen of
Denmark, the next. In order to facilitate this consequential
business, an interview is intended to be had between him and the
Kings of Denmark and Prussia. A minority Lord, a favourite
of the last mentioned Monarch, is said to have had a principal
hand in this grand scheme.
It may be depended on that General Gage has been authorised
to give every necessary assistance to such house-keepers, &c. at the
expence of the Crown, as may have been unavoidably involved
in distress by the unhappy disputes subsisting between America
and the mother country.
Orders were on Saturdy sent to the different seaports for the
guardships to receive all seamen that will voluntarily enter into
his Majesty’s service.
This morning early an express arrived at the Admiralty office,
from Portsmouth, with the agreeable news of the following men
of war being arrived off Spithead, from the East Indies: The
Northumberland, The Buckingham, and the Orford, which all
sailed immediately for the Downs; and this morning Sir Robert
Harland, who came home in the Northumberland, arrived in town.
Upwards of 100 pieces of cannon, of a new construction, so
light as to be carried by a man on horseback, and which carry
balls from four to seven pounds weight, and 10,000 stands of
arms, were shipped from the Tower, in the course of the last week,
for the use of the troops in America.
By a letter from Florence, we learn, that the situation of the
Pretender is truly deplorable. His finances are limited almost to
poverty, and the Cardinal York squanders his ecclesiastical reve-
nues upon the Church, without administering much to the wants
of his brother. Thus circumstanced, the Pretender is little more
than able to keep a carriage, and on this carriage he is not al-
lowed any ensign armorial. He is exceedingly corpulent, owing
to a total disuse of exercise.
Another dangerous insurrection is said to have lately happened
at Palermo, in Italy. This is looked on as a very serious affair by
the Spanish Court, and will, in all likelihood, divert their atten-
tion that way for some time.
May 12. On Wednesday the House of Commons went into a
committee of supply, and came to the two following resolutins:
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, that the sum
of 10,976£ 18s. 2d. of the monies arisen from the duties on the rice
exported in the year 1774, be granted towards raising the supply
granted to his Majesty.
Resolved, that it is the opinion of this committee, that 2s. per
gallon be paid on all rums, or other spirits, imported into New-
foundland, from his Majesty’s colonies in North America.
The Spanish Ministry have given the strongest assurances to the
British Ambassador at Madrid, that the armament now fitting out
in the different ports of Spain “is not intended to act against
Great Britain or her colonies.”
A correspondent informs us, that the destination of the Spanish
squadron has at length been discovered. It is intended to rendez-
vous at Cadiz, and to sail from thence directly for the Rio de Ja-
neiro in South America, where the Spaniards and Portuguese have
been at war for several years, and the latter have generally had the
Col. Goreham is promoted to the rank of Brigadier General, in
North America, and it is said, is to have the command of a de-
tachment from the royal army, to be stationed at Marshfield, and
other places on the south shore of New England; and that Lieu-
tenant Colonel Dalrymple, of the 14th regiment, is to be second in
command of said detachment under Brigadier Goreham.
HOUSE OF COMMONS.
Mr. Burke then produced and read in his place, a remonstrance
to the Parliament of Great Britain from the General Assembly of
New York, said to be signed by 26 members: He then moved
for leave to bring it up to the table; and the question being put
by the Speaker, that this remonstrance be now brought up, Lord
North paved the way for getting rid of the main question, by
moving an amendment; that the wordes, “which is derogatory
”to the supreme authority of the British Parliament,” be added.
Upon which a short debate ensued, and the principal speakers
were: For the amendment, Lord North, Mr. Cornwall, Mr.
Jenkinson, Mr. Aubrey, and Mr. Thomas Walpole: Against
it, Mr. Cruger, Mr. T. Townshend, Mr. C. Fox, Mr. Burke,
Governor Johnstone, and Serjeant Adair. A little after seven the
House divided; for the amendment, 186, against it 67; of course
the main question was lost; and after some private business, the
House adjourned to this day.
NEW YORK, June 29.
We hear that three men of war, and 16 sail of transports,
with British troops on board, are now lying at Sandy Hook.
These are part of the troops which at their embarkation were des-
tined for New York. Since their arrival here, we are told Gene-
ral Gage has ordered them to Boston; but if so, we know not
why their departure is delayed. Some suppose that General Hal-
dimand, who arrived about a week ago, came here to take the
command of these troops. We are told they are unwilling to go
To his Excellency GEORGE WASHINGTON, GENERALISSI-
MO of all the forces raised, and to be raised, in the confederated
colonies of AMERICA.
The ADDRESS of the PROVINCIAL CONGRESS of the colony
of NEW YORK.</em
May it please your Excellency,
At a time when the most loyal of his Majesty’s subjects, from
a regard to the laws and constitution by which he sits on
the throne, feel themselves reduced to the unhappy neccessity of
taking up arms to defind their dearest rights and privileges; while
we deplore the calamities of this divided empire, we rejoice in
the appointment of a Gentleman, from whose abilities and virtue
we are taught to expect both security and peace.
Confiding in you, Sir, and in the worthy Generals immediately
under your command, we have the most flattering hopes of suc-
cess in the glorious struggle for American liberty, and the fullest
assurances, that whenever this important contest shall be decided
by the fondest wish of each American soul, an acommodation with
our mother country, you will cheerfully resign the important de-
posit committed into your hands, and re-assume the character of
our worthy citizen. By order,
June 16, 1775. P. B. B. LIVINGSTON, President.
HIS EXCELLENCY’S ANSWER.
At the same time that, with you, I deplore the unhappy ne-
cessity of such an appointment as that with which I am now
honoured, I cannot but feel sentiments of the highest gratitude
for this affecting instance of distinction and regard.
May your warmest wishes be realized in the success of America
at this important and interesting period, and be assured, that every
exertion of my worthy colleagues and myself will be equally ex-
tended to the re-establishment of peace and harmony between the
mother country and these colonies.
As to the fatal, but necessary, operations of war: When we
assumed the soldier, we did not lay aside the citizen; and we shall
most sincerely rejoice with you, in that happy hour when the
establishment of American liberty, on the most firm and solid
foundations, shall enable us to return to our private stations, in
the bosom of a free, peaceful, and happy country.
June 26, 1775. G. WASHINGTON.
WILLIAMSBURG, July 15.
His Majesty’s ship Mercury, Capt. M’Cartney, anchored off
York town last Tuesday. This vessel left New York the
1st instant, and is come to relieve the Fowey, which sailed yester-
day morning, in company with the Otter. The latter, we are
told, is gone on a cruise, and is expected to return; but the Fowey,
after landing the Right Hon. the Earl of Dunmore at Portsmouth
(at which place it is supposed his Excellency will reside) proceeds
to Boston with Captain Edward Foy on board, of his Majesty’s
train of artillery.
Extract of a letter from PHILIDELPHIA, JULY 4.
”London papers are just come to hand as late as the 23d of
May, whcih give an account that the New York Assembly’s pe-
tition to the King, and mememorial to the Lords, have been pre-
sented in vain; the latter was rejected, and when his Majesty
was askerd what answer should be given to the petition, he said
he shoud give none, but that his fleet and army should return
them all the answer they deserved. - - - It is imagined the Congress
will sit about three weeks longer. Howe is the General that was
slain in the late engagement.”
Since our last arrived in this city several companies of volunteers
from the counties of Spotsylvania, King George, Albemarle,
James City, Surry, Louisa, and Stafford. A party of troops,
who marched from hence last Tuesday, are now encamped near
The Two Sisters, Capt. Maxwell, is arrived in James river,
from London. The Captain says the city of London is filled
with lamentable comlaints of the suffering poor; that great war-
like preparations were making, and vast numbers of seamen en-
tering into the King’s service; and that 40 sail of transports were
in the channel when he came out, which was about the 16th of
May, all bound to Ireland to take in troops for America.
In consequence of a resolution of the committee of Middlesex
county, entered into on the 6th of last month, respecting some
goods taken from on board Capt. Moses Robertson, by Messrs.
Mills and company, in vindication of our characters, we are in-
duced to inform the public, that being at Urbanna, in order to
deliver a vessel to those Gentlemen, we saw boats pass divers times
in the night to and from a ship which we were told was Captain
Robertson’s; at the same time a Gentleman of that company stood
on the shore, where we saw parcels landed, whcih appeared to us
to be goods. This we are ready to make oath when required.
GLOUCESTER, JOHN PARSONS, JOHN DEGGE,
July 10, 1775. WILLIAM DEGGE, WILLIAM HUDGIN.
To Mess. DISON & HUNTER.
Gentlemen, RUFFIN’S FERRY, July 13, 1775.
I am this day informed, by a friend, that a very extraordinary
publication is to appear in your gazette this week, stigmatizing
Mess. Mills and Lorimer and myself in the most unjustifiable
manner, in regaqrd to a quantity of goods which four men of
Gloucester county supposed I had brought in from London, for
the above mentioned Gentlemen, and landed at Urbanna. I shall,
without hesitation, take upon me to say that I did not bring in
any goods for them, or any other person, and am ready to make
oath to this assertion whenever I may be called upon for that pur-
pose; and my chief mate, and other officers, will attest the same.
The conduct of these men is highly reprehensible and malicious,
as they have endeavoured to fix a heavy charge upon me, without
having proper grounds to support it. As to those Gentlemen
whose characters have been aspersed, as well as my own, they will,
I make no doubt, be able to confute every thing their Accusers
have charged them with.
I am, Gentlemen, your humble servant,
HANOVER, July 6, 1775.
I INTEND to England, and have ap-
pointed Mr. George Pottie to be my At-
torney during my Absence.
A NEW BRIGANTINE,
that will carry three Hundred Hogsheads, or nine Thousand Bush-
els, and will be ready to receive a Cargo in ten Days. For Terms
apply to 4 JAMES ARCHDEACON.
NORFOLK, July 14, 1775.
URBANNA, June 26,1775.
WENT away fom the Subscriber, on
the 14th instant, a well set black Fellow, commonly
known by the Name of BILLY BARBER, about 30 or 32 Years
of Age, and 5 Feet 8 or 9 Inches high. This Fellow is well
known over most of this Colony, as he has attended several Gen-
tlemen whose Business obliged them a good Deal from Home,
particularly the late Mr. Hugh McMekin of Portsmouth. He has,
I am told, a Wife at Norfolk, another at Hampton, and a third at
this Place; it is probable he may be about the two first mentioned
Places. Any Person who will deliver him to me, at Urbanna,
shall have a Reward of 5£ current Money; and I hereby fore-
warn all Persons (particularly a certain Lockey Collier, near Hamp-
ton, whose Property he is) from harbouring or concealing the said
Slave, as I will, at a future Day, most assuredly prosecute him
or them to the utmost Extent of the Law.
RUn away from the Subscriber, in King
George, near Leeds Town, the 24th of June last, a Negro
Man named CHARLES, a stout, likely, well made Fellow, has
had a Hurt in his left Knee some Years ago, which at Times is
very sore; his left Leg is much larger than the other, and has
Scars on it, by being cut by the Doctor. Whoever secures
him so that I may get him again shall have 20 s. besides what the
Law allows. JOHN WASHINGTON.
STRAYED from Capt. Mordecai Buck-
ner’s in Spotsylvania on Saturday the 1st of July, a large
Skewball MARE, 6 or 7 Years old, about 15 Hands high, paces,
trots, anbd gallops; her Head, left Buttock, and all her Feet,
are white; the other Parts of a Sorrel Colour. Whoever returns
the said Mare to Mr. James Taylor, or to Mrs. Rachel McWilli-
ams, in Fredericksburg, shall have 30s. Reward.
FISH and TEA.
A NEW SONG.———To an Old Tune.
WHAT a Court hath Old England of folly and fin,
Spite of Chatham and Camden, Barre, Burke,
Wilkes, and Glyn!
Not content with the game-act, they tax fish and sea.
And America drench with hot water and tea.
Derry down, &c.
Lord S————-, he swears they are terrible cowards,
Who can’t be made brave by the blood of the Howards;
And to prove there is truth in America’s fears,
He conjures Sir Peter’s poor ghost ‘fore the Peers,
Derry down, &c.
Now indeed if these poor people’s nerves are so weak,
How cruel it is their destruction to seek!
Dr. Johnson’s a proof, in the highest degree,
His soul and his sysem were changed by tea.
Derry down, &c.
But if the wife Council of England doth think
They may be enslaved by the power of the drink,
They’re right to enforce it; but then, do you see?
The colonies too may refuse, and be free.
Derry down, &c.
There is no knowing where this oppression will stop;
Some say-there’s no cure but a capital chop;
And that I believe’s each American’s with,
Since you’ve drenched ‘em with tea, and depriv’d ‘em of fish.
Derry down, &c.
The birds of the air and the fish of the sea,
By the Gods for poor Dan Adam’s use were made free,
Till a man with more power than old Moses would wish,
Said-Ye wretches, she shan’t touch a fowl or a fish.
Derry down, &c.
Three Gen’rals these mandates have borne ‘cross the sea,
To deprive them of fish, and to make them drink tea;
In turn, sure these freemen will boldly agree
To give them a dance upon Liberty Tree.
Derry down, &c.
Then freedom’s the word both at home and abroad,
And d___n ev’ry seabard that holds a good sword!
Our forefathers gave us this freedom in hand,
And we will die in defence of the rights of the land.
Derry down, &c.
As ordered by his Majesty in the Year 1764,
Of the Method generally practised at
Reviews & FIELD-DAYS:
Firing by Sub Divisions and Grand Divisions, standing, ad-
vancing, and retreating. Wheeling by Companies. Ad-
vancing and retreating by Files. Forming the Oblong Square
by Companies and Battalions. Forming Columns by Com-
panies and Grand Divisions. Passing a Defile or Bridge by
Half Companies, and re-passing in Retreat. Charge and
Volley by Battalion. Some occassional Words of Command,
with Explanations, &c. &c.
To which is affixed, the Words of Command as they follow in
Order in the Manual Exercise.
A VESSEL capable of carrying 1500
Barrels, to Britain. Whoever can
furnish such a one will please to signify the
same to Mr. Alexander Purdie, at his Print-
A CARGO OF SALT from St. Ubes
and Lewis Town, in the Ship Mol-
ly, Capt. Cowan; which will be sold on
Board said Ship at Hobb’s Hole, or by the
Subscriber in Urbanna.
BLANDFORD, JULY 6, 1775.
THE Subscriber has a few CASKS of
SHOES, about 30£,Sterling Worth
each,imported last Fall, in the Jean,
Capt. Ritchie, which he will dispose of
at a low Advance for ready Money, or short
Credit. (4) JOHN GREEN.
To be SOLD, at the late Dwelling-House
of Alexander Lietch, deceased, on Monday
the 31st of July, if fair, otherwise the next
All the personal Estate of the said De-
ceased, consisting chiefly of HOUSE-
HOLD FURNITURE. Six Months
Credit will be allowed for all Sums exceed-
ing 25s. on giving Bond and Security.
MARGARET LIETCH, Adm.
Prince George, July 4, 1775.
I intend leaving the Colony for a few
Months. The Store carried on here
for Mess. Dinwiddie, Crawfurd, and Co.
Merchants, in Glasgow, will, in my Ab-
sence, be under the Direction of Mess.
Charles Duncan and John Ray, who are
properly authorised to transact the same.
2 DAVID RUSSELL.
SURRY COUNTY, July 4, 1775
STOLEN from the subscriber, in the
Night of the 2d Instant, a small BAY HORSE about 6
Years old, is branded, but the Brand I have forgot, his Mane and
Tail was cut some time ago, but now grown out pretty much;
he paces and canters pretty well but trots little or none. Who-
ever gives any Intelligence, so that I get him again, shall have
20s. Reward, and 20s. more on Conviction of the Thief.
I || PATIENCE INGRAM.
STOLEN, in the Night of the 24th
of June last, a sorrel HORSE five
Years old, 4 Feet 8 Inches high, a Star in
his Forehead, which is joined to a Snip on
his Nose, a white Streak about an Inch in
Width, hanging Main, his Foretop, Ears,
and Footlocks have been lately trimmed,
has many white Hairs under the Saddle,
a white Mark down the Hoof of one of
his hind Feet, and paces slow. I will give 3£ to any Person who delivers said Horse
to me, in the upper End of Hanover, and
5£ on Conviction of the Thief.
2 || JOHN PHILIPS.
NORFOLK, June 26, 1775.
All Persons indebted to the late Con-
cern of William Duncan & Company,
Printers, are requested to make immediate
Payment, for Stationary, and for the first
Year’s Gazette, to the Subscriber, who is
properly empowered to receive the same.
For SALE, and very cheap,
One Thousand Acres of exceeding valuable
L A N D,
lying in the upper End of Hanover County, on the main Road,
in very good Order for Cropping, and improved with a commo-
dious Dwelling - House, and all necessary outhouses, fit for the
Reception of a Gentleman in private or public Life. The Pay-
ment will be made easy to the Purchaser and the Terms known
by applying to me on the Premises.
HANOVER, June 29, 1775.
THE Subscriber intends for
Great Britain immediately. JOHN HICKS.
ALEXANDRIA, June 5, 1775.
EIGHT POUNDS REWARD.
RUN away from the Subscriber, two in-
dented Servants named ROBERT SHAW and ANDREW
INGLES, both Natives of Scotland, and Bakers by Trade. Each
of them had on a Bearskin Jacket lined with Plaid Osnabrug
Trousers, old Shoes, and Half worn Castor Hats. Their Bundles
consist, as it is supposed, of two Match Coat Blankets, two Pair
of Leather Breeches, two Osnabrug shirts, two Check Shirts, and
two red Jackets. Shaw is about 5 Feet 10 Inches high, has a
swarthy Complexion, dark short frizled Hair, a long Scar on his
right Arm, appears bold, and talks much. Ingles is about 5 Feet
5 Inches high, has short straight Hair, swarthy and long featured,
has a Scab over his right Eye, his right Leg is sore, he is fond of
Liquor, and talks more in his Country Dialect than Shaw.———
THOMAS WALSOM, a Convict, about 27 Years of Age, a
Barber by Trade, about 5 Feet 6 Inches high, has a Laddish down
Look, brown straight Hair, a little knock-kneed, and a leering
Look; had on, and took with him, two white Linen Shirts, an
old Drab coloured Cloth Coat, one red and one striped Holland
Jacket, one Pair of new Drilling Breeches, and one Pair of old Buff
coloured Stocking Breeches, one Pair of white and one Pair of
white and blue spotted Stockings, a new Felt Hat bound with black
Ferreting, has a black Silk Handkerchief, and some other Things
which cannot be described. ——— WILLIAM LEE, by Trade a
Cooper, about 5 Feet 9 Inches high, marked with the Smallpox,
has a remarkable large Nose, speaks thick, and is impudent; he
took with him a yellow Bull-Dog, with cropped Ears, one Side
of his Face white, has Glass Eye, and white Breast and Neck, is
very fond of going into the Water, and answers to the Name of
Turk. The said Lee had a Variety of Clothes, which cannot well be described. Whoever takes up, and secures the said Servants, shall have the above Reward, or 40s. for each, paid by
(tf—|| 3S.) ROBERT ADAM.
MANCHESTER, June 24, 1775. I SHALL leave this Colony soon: Those
with whom I am connected, either as Debtor or Creditor, will
oblige me by coming to a Settlement as quickly as they can. The
Management of my Affairs will be left with Mr. Robert Donald
of Bedford, who will move to this Place before I go away.
|| JAMES DONALD.
COMMITTED to the Gaol of Henrico,
a Negro Woman, who says her Name is BETTY, about
4 Feet 10 Inches high; has on an Osnabrug Shift and Petticoat,
has a Hole through each ear, appears to be outlandish, and cannot
tell her Master’s Name. The Owner is desired to prove his Proper-
ty, pay Charges, and take her away.
|| MARY LINDSEY, GAOLER.
COMMITTED to the Gaol of Henrico,
a Negro Man, who says his Name is CHAFFEAT, about
24 Years of Age, 5 Feet 7 Inches high; he has on a white Negro
Cotton Jacket and Breeches, and an Osnabrug Shirt. He says he
belongs to one Hell, Hill, or Hillary Worsham, but cannot tell the
County his Master lives in, and speaks remarkably bad English.
The Owner is desired to prove his Property, pay Charges, and
take him away. || MARY LINDSEY, Gaoler.
TAKEN up, in Louisa, near the Green Springs, a BRIGHT
BAY MARE about 4 Feeet 7 Inches highs, 9 or 10 Years
old, branded on the near Buttock X, her hind Feet white, has a
white Streak in her Forehead, and a hanging Mane and Switch
Tail. Posted, and appraised to 16£.
(2||) POUNCEY BUNCH.
TAKEN up, in Spotsylvania, a SORREL HORSE about
4 Feet 8 Inches high, 9 or 10 Years old, paces, trots and
gallops, appears to have been much used, and branded on the near
Buttock D, as near as I can make out. Posted, and appraised to
14£ (2||) THOMAS COLEMAN.
TAKEN up, in Bedford, a BAY HORSE about 13 Hands
high,12 or 13 Years old, has two Glass Eyes, and three
white Feet, some white Hairs on his Back, a white Face, branded
on the near Shoulder S, and on the off Buttock with Something
unintelligible. He has had a Fistula, and has now the Poll-Evil.
Posted and appraised to 7£.
To be RENTED, for one or more Years.
A VALUABLE FARM on James River, near the Mouth of
Beaverdam, in Goochland County, 26 Miles from Rich-
mond, sufficient to employ ten Hands and six Horses to great Ad-
vantage. This Place is well known, and deservedly esteemed,
both for Richness of Soil and useful Improvements in the Farm-
ing Way, consisting of proper Enclosures, Dwelling-Housees,
Granaries, Stable, and Treading-Floor, together with a large
Apple Orchard of late Fruit. My present Dwellling-House, Gar-
den, Stable, Store, and other Outhouses, Peach and Cherry Or-
chards, with a good Still, being off the Farm, will be let as a
Tavern, for which Purpose they are conveniently situate, and well
calculated. For Terms apply to the Subscriber, on the Premises.
5|| THOMAS PLEASANTS.
THE subscriber being very desirous of
getting out of Debt, without any Dependence on his un-
grateful Debtors, proposes to sell the pleasant and healthy Seat of
HUNTINGTOUR, near Appamattox River, in the lower End of
Buckingham, with 1500 or 2000 Acres of good Land, which pro-
duces fine Tobacco, Hemp, Wheat, &c. The Houses are new,
and the best I have seen in the County; a larger and better Gar-
den I believe is not in the Colony, and on this Land are several
Hundred Fruit Trees of the best Kind, many of which were
brought by water to RichmondTown above 80 Miles. On this
Tract of Land is a large Proportion of exceeding fine Meadow
Land, with a Fish Pond within three Hundred Yards of the Dwel-
ling House, stored with various Kinds of fine Fish, sufficient for
the Use of a Family the Year round. In this Neighbourhood is
Plenty of excellent Venison. The Air is so pure that I never
knew an Instance of any Person having the Ague and Fever at
Huntingtour.I have travelled through the most Parts of Virginia,
and I have not seen any Part that I would so willingly reside in
as this Neighborhood. If I sell this Place, I shall live on the
Part of this Tract of Land which has been advertised for some
Time past. I make no Doubt but Appamattox River will be soon
cleared, and then Wheat will be carried as far as Col. Banister’s
Mill near Petersburg, for 4d. or 5d. per Bushel. I made at this
Place 100 Gallons of rich Wine in 1772, and last Year (if it had
not been for the Frost) I could have made 5 or 600 Gallons,
which Quantity I expect to make this Year.
HUNTINGTOUR would be a pleasant and safe Place for a
Gentleman of Fortune to retreat to in the Horrours of a civil
War, or in the sickly Months of many Parts of the Lowlands.
”What is Honour, Grandeur, and Wealth?
”All fleeting, Nothing’s without Health!”
I hope any Gentlemen inclinable to purchase will visit the Pre-
mises this Summer.——I will also sell, very cheap (that is,for
about Half the Value) the Tract of rich LAND I have advertised
in Albemarle for some Time past.
tf ANTHONY WINSTON.
STRAYED from the Subscriber, in
Blandford,on the 4th of March last, a dark Mare, 7
or 8 Years old, about 14 Hands high, with a hanging Mane and
Switch Tail, cat-hamm’d, paces naturally, has some Saddle Spots
on the near Side, and branded WK, or WR, on the near Soul-
der and Buttock. Also a small sorrel FILLY went away with
her, two Years old this Spring, had a Snip on the right Nostril,
but neither docked nor branded. They were seen on Rowanty, and
are imagined to have gone towards Walker’s Mill, on Nottoway,
or Hick’s Ford, on Meberrin. ——— Whoever will bring the said
Mares to me shall be handsomely rewarded for their Trouble.
(tf) DAVID BLACK.
TO BE RENTED,
A large Dwelling-House
In RICHMOND TOWN,
40 Feet by 20, with two rooms below and two above, a Garden
newly pailed in, a Kitchen, and all other Outhousses necessary
for a Family. The Situation is as pleasant as any in Town.
The Termns may be known by applying to the Printers
hereof, or to the Subscriber, in said Town.
(tf) GABRIEL GALT.
TO BE SOLD,
THREE Thousand Acres of well timbered LAND, near New-
market, in Caroline County, whereon are two Plantations in
good Repair, with proper and convenient Edifices for farming or
making of Tobacco. For Terms apply to the Subscriber.
(tf) JOHN BAYLOR.
TO BE SOLD
A Tract of LAND in Caroline County, contiguous to Mat-
tapony, containing about 2000 Acres of well timbered Land,
the Property of Mr. Robert Baylor. The Terms may be known
by applying to Mr. Nathaniel Burwell of King William, Mr. John
Armistead of Caroline, and Mr. John Baylor, Executors. (tf)
For SALE, and very CHEAP,
THE Tract of LAND whereon I now live, in the lower End
of Caroline County, that contains 470 Acres, and is known
to be very good. The Improvements are, a new Dwelling-House
32 by 28 Feet, with three Dormants on s Side, two Fireplaces
below, and one above, a good Cellar, the Kitchen 24 by 16 Feet,
with all other Outhouses quite new, and the Plantation in fine
Order for Cropping. Its Situation is equal to any Forest Place
whatever. I will Credit till next Christmas, when Possession
may be had. LE ROY HIPKINS.