The Virginia gazette. Number 418, Thursday May 12, 1774

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The Virginia gazette. Number 418, Thursday May 12, 1774



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Thursday, May 12, 1774 THE Number 41.8
All Persons may be supplied with this GAZETTE at 12s. 6d. a Year. ADVERTISEMENTS, of a moderate Length, are inserted for 3s. the first Week ,
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I AM aware of an argument, a best only collected
from our neighbouring province; and I think I have
digested it so as really to stifle it in every modest
man’s opinion. It is advanced that Maryland, for
a great while, would not come into any inspecting
law. So far I say they were wise. But that finding the
low price of the Virginia tobacco rising, by means of
their inspecting law, they agreed to enact one themselves.
Let any body consider what has been before advanced,
and say whether it was not a wrong conclusion, both
in Virginia and Maryland, that any rise in tobacco
ought, or could, be imputed to such a cause. If it
was the real cause, what has produced the present very
low price in Virginia, when the very inspection law is
still, and has been so long in being? But to go on.
After this inspecting law had been in use in Maryland,
why was it suffered to expire without being re-enacted?
Perhaps a low price in the fluctuation of the commo-
dity again explained that it did not compensate for
the hardships and expence the planter had under the
law been obliged to endure. A more certain deduction
this for its being suffered to expire, I am persuaded, than
any other that can be assigned. But then I am asked
what has made them revive the law again? I answer,
not the present boasted price of the commodity at home,
to be sure; for that rise proves itself either to have come
out of the merchants counting houses, or that it raised
only by the scent of a revival of that law; because the
very tobacco on which the price was raised, was all of
that very mean trash, &c. which their public newspapers
in Baltimore and elsewhere, had puffed out, by way of
extract from home. But is there not another cause to be
presumed why they have revived that law? Indeed, gen-
tlemen, you know there is. Just like other folks, the
Marylanders, frightened with what was but too common,
the rising and falling of tobacco, and never considering
that it is one of the depravations in this trade in particu-
lar, when things are selling cheap, to endeavour to make
them still cheaper, that the trader or merchant, who
sells them for another, may get the more money himself.
I say the counting houses easily could, and perhaps I may
demonstrate they do, sink the commodity lower by much
than what the course of fluctuation ever does. But yet,
as it is natural in all alarms of the kind, one person,
and indeed one colony, adopts the same wise remedies on
the same wise principles of another; by which means,
gentlemen, your college became imitated with a mere
adoration, in every unhappy measure of the kind which
it had fallen upon. The man resolved to gain in trade,
invents a thousand things to obstruct any discovery of
himself; and can as easily tell you you sent trash, under
an inspecting law, which he could not sell, as that you
sent a fine commodity without such a law, which he sold
well, though at a low market. A folio of these proofs
may be at any time produced. But what, dear gentle-
men, are you now to entertain the world or yourselves
with, either as a cause of the present low price, or as a
remedy for that cause? You have had your amending
law many years, and some years you have made it a law to
lessen the quantity by your extraordinary modifications.
And yet your merchants have, it seems, advised you “to
employ your slaves about any thing rather than tobacco,
for it is worth nothing, and must bring you in debt:”
Aye, there is the rub; and presumtively the very cause
why it is ever worth nothing among such a vast world of
luxurious consumers. Had these kind advisers been a
little more consistent in their apologies for their low sales,
and indeed not quite so barefaced as to think that we
could be cajoled by their artifice in advising against
their own interest, there would have been no very clear
ground for the least suspicion. But inconsistency has
never yet made any tolerable figure amongst the criteria
of truth. What credit then can be paid to one who bids
you leave off making the very thing which he lives by;
nay the very thing which he sends for to you? A gull
this, ye powers, indeed! In hopes that such a disinter-
ested complexion in advice, must compassionate his friends
into a firm persuasion of the difficulty he lay under in
not being able to give better prices than what he sent in,
and no doubt drive them to a mere forcing, that thing of
no value, that thing which must bring them in debt again,
under his disinterested care; at least that he might not
lose by any dead freight in his ship, sent in to accommo-
date so much reciprocal friendship, supposing they should
be brought in debt by what they sent him, for nobody
can suppose such a merchant must be a fool to condemn
his judgement and give a better price. Again. Perhaps
few are so minute as I am always, when examining into
such a mere excess in nature. I must therefore ask what
can be the reason that, even at the time when tobacco is
said to be worth nothing, we cannot get a pipe of cut and
dry tobacco at a less price than from 13d. to 18d. the
pound, which they actually charge in their invoices at-
tending their very kind advice? Can it be possible that the
smoker or manfacturer, who buys from them at five far-
things, or less, per pound, clear of duty, as your mer-

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chant tells you, could have the impudence to make so
very consciencious a gentleman pay 13 or 18d. for it,
after he had manufactured it? To be sure the very enor-
mity of such an inconsistency must speak more than any
merchant, ever so disinterested, would care to explain.
The best sort of this tobacco is brought in here by the
honest captains, and sold much cheaper in current mo-
ney; and that by a method, no merchant can be a
stranger to. A quantity, perhaps about 50lbs. which the
act of parliament allows, to be exported, is bought,
cleared of the duty by its drawback, and this sold by the
manufacturer under 5d. so that a sale here, at 12d. cur-
rency, becomes a great penny. And to strengthen the
observation, even 5d. to the manufacturer, who had
bought at 5 farthings, as the merchant, by his sales, tells
you, is a trade which no conscience, but that of a mer-
chant, could well demand. Certain I am that no manu-
facturer could have demanded it of any merchant, who
had sold it to him for 5 farthings, because it is as 400 is
to 100, 300 per cent. at least, between the price bought
at, allow it 5 farthings, and the price sold at 5d. the
pound. Those who reason on pleas of the crown tell us,
that it is only by insignificant trifles that we come at the
discovery of great things; and I dare refer this circum-
stance to any ear, impartial enough to be open, to say
what is convincing or what is not. But to go a little
farther. Would not any body smile to hear an agent in
this country for one of these kind advisers, buying to-
bacco for him, and from the very man to whom the prin-
cipal had only neated from 37s. to 3£. the hogshead, and
offering him 10s. sterling a hundred Virginia weight? Does
not this man intend to make people believe that the mar-
ket will rise to 5£. or more, the hogshead, the next return,
or that it is worth more than he sold it for? Now, dear
conclave, weight these things in any scale of good sense,
and you must agree with me, that while our exports (our
tobacco) and our imports (our goods) all pass through
the same counting houses, it must be impossible for things
to be otherwise. I have mentioned, as one depravity in
trade, that where, in the common course of fluctuation,
any commodity shall not be in demand, its only natural
fluctuation; the merchant reduces it still lower in his
counting house, to serve his devoted purpose, gain; and
for the very same reason I add, he never gives the price
he sells it for, when it is in demand. Thus are we situ-
ated as to our export of our tobacco; the price is lessened,
the high counting house commissions, the charges begot
by fraud, and maintained by its prime minister, custom;
and after this commissions for selling, otherwise called by
them the petty commissions; and as to the goods sent in
by them, if double shop notes for one and the same thing,
from the same tradesman, one high charged, and the
other low, the high to be the correspondent’s charge,
the low the poor tradesman’s pay; if letters and tickets,
in books and goods, discovering a greater charge made
the correspondent, than paid the tradesman; if good
private people, from 25 to 40 per. cent. cheaper, can
be any proof of a counting house advance, I may dare any
body to dispute it; but not to deny it; for that would
be too bold a word, as to trade. Can it then be worth
your while to meditate about raising the price of tobacco
at home, when it must be a doubt whether you ever knew
what it was? To raise it here is the only way; and that
is to sell in to these counting house gentry, or let them
want it, if they will not buy it; and as soon as possible
to live ourselves out of debt, by even living down to the
lowest distress of the times, rather than not effect this
great work; because if any man, who has ever had an
opportunity to do it, will but reflecton the difference he
must have experienced in such a state of doubt, he must
be satisfied from whence his very low prices began. But,
for God’s sake, never let your consultations tend in the
least to compel industry to quit any employments which it
must, from experience, know how to manage, and to do
it with the least expence, and force it, by any kind of re-
striction, to pursue any other cultivation, in which both a
knowledge and money must be wanting to effect any com-
mon purpose; at least in the poor worn out lands in the
lower parts of the country, where there can only be
manure enough found by the poor planter to raise a crop
of tobacco. Adieu, with great submission.

Mrs. RIND,
I solicit your kindness in giving the following a place as
soon as possible, which will materially oblige,

Your very humble servant,


THE rise and multiplication of dissenters in this co-
lony cannot give more pain to the friends of the
establishment than the proceedings against them in many
places must give to every generous and intelligent christi-
an. Liberty of conscience is so indisputably a right of
every human being, a right of such infinite consequence
to the present peace and future felicity of mankind, that
the least invasion of it calls for the serious attention
of all who with well to their fellow creatures. This con-

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sideration prompts me to offer to the public some
thoughts on the treatment given to our sectaries, which
I am rather inclined to do at the present juncture, be-
cause the time approaches for the meeting of our assem-
bly, who, I presume, will pay due regard to a matter
of so much importance to multitudes, whose welfare
they are bound, in honour and fidelity, to take care of.
I cannot forbear adding, that as it gives me pleasure to
reflect that the representative of Virginia were the first
in opposing political oppression, so I am encouraged to
hope they will not be the last in abolishing religious per-

Without enquiring whether the toleration acts be in
force here, or have been legally executed, which I take
to be very questionable, or whether the act relating to
the induction of ministers extends to dissenters, which
might be denied, without the imputation of cavilling,
or whether the penal statutes of parliament, enacted
prior to the settlement of America, and not since abro-
gated with our concurrence, ought to be executed here,
which would introduce the most horrid mischiefs and
barbarities; I say, without entering on these enquiries,
I shall proceed to consider whether any benefit can re-
dound to the church of England, to the civil govern-
ment, or to the dissenters themselves, from the punish-
ment of them, on account of their doctrines and worship.

Is it the benefit of the church of England that is to be
promoted by employing the civil power against dissenters?
I hope the church of England does not stand in need of
carnal weapons to make it flourish. I am sure the church
of Christ does not; and if they are the same, or if the
first be a part of the other, such weapons should never be
seen in the hands of those who would manage her cause.
The religion of Christ was introduced, and made its way
in the world, by the force of well attested truth, against
swords, bonds, and imprisonments: Is it to the honour
of the church of England to have recourse to these anti-
christian means of supporting herself? The church of
Christ has always suffered persecution; for every one that
will live godly in Christ Jesus must suffer persecution
some respect or other. Will not the church of England,
then be subjected to the charge of apostacy, when she
begins to inflict persecution? And will not those who are
persecuted think they have one strong evidence that they
are on the true plan, and that their adversaries are gone
over to the side of the world and the flesh, since they
borrow and fight with their weapons?

Whenever violence is used where rational arguments
would be more proper and successful, it implies that these
are wanting; it will be so interpreted at least. Christians
have reasoned thus against Mahometans; the church of
England has reasoned thus against papists. She must
not, then, be surprized, when she adopts their practices,
to find her reasonings retorted; and if she gives dissent-
ers the same advantages over her which she had over the
church of Rome at her separation, is there not reason to
apprehend they may be employed with equal industry
and success?

The truth is, it may be said of the church of England,
and every other christian church, that if the purity of
her doctrines, the dignity of her worship, the vigour of
her discipline, and the good behaviour of her members,
do not uphold her, it is not to be done to any good pur-
pose by any other means whatever; and if she has these
advantages on her side, all other means, all exertions of
the civil power, are superfluous.

If it be pretended that the safety of government re-
quires that the dissenters should be proceeded against by
the civil magistrate, I would desire to know whether
they have ever made an attack on the constitution?
Whether they have ever been detected in plotting con-
spirators, or stirring up rebellion? If they have, these
things should be alledged against them, should be made
the ground of the accusation, and the reason of their
punishment. But they dislike the church, and the church
is united to the government; they must therefor dislike
and resist the government, because of the union. And
must they be punished, too, on conjecture and suspicion?
Let it not be forgotten that we are protestants, and have
renounced the Romish inqusition. Admit that they do
think the civil establishment of the church of England a
fault in the contitution, it does not follow that they
have the least intention or desire to injure the constituti-
on. Many great men, many wise and good men, have
thought ecclesiastical establishments unjust and hurtful,
and yet have lived in the most quiet submission to them,
and been eminent for their loyalty. Besides, can the
execution of a penal law rectify their mistakes, or conci
liate their affection? Will it not rather encrease their
disapprobation of a government where their peace is
liable to be disturbed, their possessions wasted, and their
bodies imprisoned by every wanton bigot, and every
malicious enemy?

It it still be insisted, that there is a tendency in religi-
ous dissentions to popular commotions, and that dissent-
ers, for that reason, ought to be dreaded and checked,
I would say, that if it be true that there is such a ten-
dency, it can be owing to nothing else than the civil

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punishment inflicted on dissenters. Mere religion has
nothing to do with the powers of this world. They are
distinct in their nature, and should be distinguished in all
political regulations. Whenever religion begins to dis-
turb the public peace, and threaten danger to civil so-
ciety, as it loses its nature, it ought to be changed in its
name, and should be suppressed, not as religion, but
sedition and riot. But when men who desire to live in
peace and content are perplexed and assaulted by the civil
arm, on account of their religion, not their religion,
but the indiscretion of the magistrate is the cause of the
danger; and this danger will always be greater or less,
acording to the number and principles of the sufferers.
When the number is small, there is an incapacity, and
when the principles are pacific and passive, there is a
want of inclination, to do mischief. It may be proper
to observe, that we have both these securities in our pre-
sent circumstances. However, allowing that we had reason
to apprehend danger from our dissenters (which I am
confident we have not) I refer it to every unprejudiced
man, whether a rigorous treatment of them would not
be manifestly inexpedient, which must at once urge them
to and furnish them with a more specious pretext for
hostile projects. Disaffection in the common people to a
government always arises from a sense of oppression.
They do not examine the nature of the constitution;
they do not penetrate into secret causes, nor look for-
ward into distant consequences; but they know when
they are imposed upon; they can feel their burden and
their misery. The surest way, therefore, to preserve
tranquility, in a free state, is to avoid grievances, which
touch on the conscience the most sensible part; as the
most eligible way to reconcile the disaffected is to take off
unnecessary impositions. Violence may destroy them,
but lenity may win their friendship.

Love is the strongest cement of society, and union in
religious sentiments promotes love. On this considera-
tion, a wise magistrate might desire uniformity in reli-
gion. but when divisions spring up, sectaries encrease,
parties begin to be formed, it is wisdom then to inculcate
mutual charity and toleration. Opposition and force
irritate and inflame; forbearance softens and assuages.
Whenever it happens, not only that one religious party
is protected by the civil power, but that another is har-
rassed and persecuted, it begets pride, contempt, and
cruelty, in the first, envy, hatred, and rage, in the
other; passions not less injurious to private happiness than
national prosperity.

But if uniformity in religion produced love and mutual
attachment, and is desireable on that account, it ought
to be remarked, at the same time, that this sort of con-
nection is very slender, where there is neither opposition
nor emulation. Add to this, that in universal agree-
ment, the spirit of enquiry ceases, religion stagnates and
corrupts, ignorance and profligacy of manners are esta-
blished, and ecclesiastical governors assume unlawful and
unjust prerogatives, which they can best maintain over
ignorant and guilty consciences. On the other hand,
different parties in religion, where they are all tolerated,
and each protected from injury from the others, keep up
emulation, enquiry and circumspection, in morals; effects
surely less hurtful to christianity, and less dangerous to
a free state, than uniformity, ignorance, and ecclesiasti-
cal tyranny.

As the good of the whole is the end of civil society,
and should always be kept in view by the legislature, all
partial grievances should be carefully avoided, and never
admitted, but in cases of extreme necessity. In countries
where there is an ecclesiastical establishment, and some
who cannot conform, the enjoyment of their religion
will cost some more than others, by reason of the double
demand on them from the law and their consciences.
Now it will naturally be thought hard by the non-con-
formists, however necessary it may appear to politicians,
or however patiently it may be submitted to , that any
should be compelled to give away part of their property
without receiving any equivalent and perhaps to support
a scheme of religion, too, which they look upon to be
subversive ot the truth. This is certainly an inconveni-
ence, if it be an unavoidable one. It ought, therefore,
to be made as easy and light as possible, and not aggra-
vated by unnecessary restrictions. If the blessings of a
civil society, from the nature of its constitution, do not
flow in equal measure, on all who are equally loyal, so
as to procure the same degree of affection from all, po-
licy, not to say justice, requires that the difference should
be as small as will possibly consist with the welfare of the
whole; for the safety of a community is most established
when it is most the interest of every individual to support
it, and, without dispute, it is most the interest of every
individual to support it when his person, his property,
and his religion, are best secured from invasion, when
the laws leave him the free exercise of his private judg-
ment, and levies no tax on the conscience which acknow-
ledges no human jurisdiction.

It will appear still more imprudent to have penal laws
against dissenters when the difficulty and tendency of ex-
ecuting them is considered. To give them their proper
effect it must be necessary to proportion their severity,
not only to different offences, but to different aggrava-
tions of the same offence. Let us attend to the conse-
quence of this: A person is apprehended for preaching
contrary to law. He alledges, in vindication of himself,
the obligations of conscience, and the necessity of obeying
God rather than man. This does not satisfy the magis-
trate, who is to execute, not to make laws. The offend-
er must therefore be sent to gaol, where the dictates of
conscience still compel him to transgress the law, even
while under punishment for disobedience. This again
must be deemed insult and contempt of the law, and
must be treated with a higher degree of correction, which
will neither cool an enthusiast, nor intimidate a real
martyr. In short, perseverance must continue to heighten
the crime, and provoke still higher and higher degrees
of severity, till the unhappy sufferer is brought to the
block, the stake, or the rack. This is the natural pro-
gress and necessary issue. For if ever the punishment
stops while the offence is repeated the victory is lost, and
the impotence of the law must give fresh courage to the
offender. All who have observed the effect of imprison-
ment on the dissenters among us will be convinced of the
truth of this representation.

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It will probably be objected against this that penal
laws compass their end by striking terror. I answer, they
do so when the penalty is greater than the advantage
expected from the transgression of them. In religion,
this is not the case, and consequently the objection loses
its force. Infinite happiness, when the mind is fixed upon
it, will not be given up for any consideration whatever;
nor does death itself, even the most cruel death, which
is the utmost human power can inflict, bear any propor-
tion to the eternal torments apprehended from evading it
by apostacy. If any think that the difference between
the presence and the absence of objects will make up for
the difference between their intrinsic worth and dread-
fulness, I desire they would recollect, that enthusiasm,
as well as that faith, which is the evidence of things not
always diminishes the regard for present enjoy-
ments, and transfers the affections to the invisible world.

Some may likewise object, that the present restriction
of dissenters under the toleration act, as regulated by the
general court, are too equitable to justify a request for
the enlargement of religious privileges. In reply to this,
many things might be mentioned; but instead of recount-
ing particular inconveniencies, which must occur to almost
every thinking man, I will make the two following ob-
servations: The act of toleration gives liberty to all who
properly apply for it, and are ready to perform the con-
ditions. I have never understood that there is any exception
or persons, or that the courts at home have the least au-
thority to refuse the benefit where it is duly claimed. The
case, I believe, is different in this colony. The general
court, if I am not misinformed, taking the authority to
refuse and limit according to their own pleasure, even
when the claimants are willing to submit to all the requi-
sitions of the law. If this be true, it ought to be con-
sidered, that, however indulgent the present gentlemen
in power may be, the liberty of the subject is not way se-
cure while it depends on the will of fallible men, or a
succession of fallible men. To depend on the will of man
is, in truth, the very definition of slavery, and all whom
it includes must be destitute of true liberty; though they
have the good fortune to be blessed with kind masters.
Nothing can give perpetuity and safety to the rights of
the subjects but the establishment of them by law; and
the more particular and clear the law is the greater se-
curity there is to those who live under it. Obscurity and
uncertainty leave such a latitude of construction as ex-
alts the judge almost into the seat of the legislator. The
other observation to be made is, that the capacity of dis-
senters to submit to the requisitions of the toleration act
is purely accidental, and what, I believe, will but little
recommend their principles to those who are most for-
ward in exacting their compliance. It is notorious, that
there are several articles of the church generally denied
by both clergy and laity. Now if it should so fall out,
that a dissenting teacher should find exceptions against
those very articles, and should hold the same religious
sentiments with the generality of the clergy of the church,
his is utterly deprived of the benefit of the law, though
he must be deemed so deserving of it; unless, like most
of the gentlemen of the establishment, he will, against all
honesty, fidelity, and conscience, receive with his hand
what he rejects with his heart. Now can any law be said
to give a reasonable latitude to dissenters when it extends
only to persons of one particular set of people, and may
deprive multitudes of the enjoyment of their religion,
who are equally attached to the civil government, equal-
ly attached to the king, who cannot be charged with
the want of one civil or focal virtue, and, what is still
more, agree with most of the clergy in every thing which
any honest man could desire, in every thing except their
hypocritical, impious,and mercenary subscription! Or
it is equitable that such persons should be deprived of the
exercise of their functions when those of the same faith.
because they have less sincerity and conscience, are pro-
tected by law, and are rewarded with an honourable and
independant maintenence?

Though innumerable other arguments might be adduced
in favour of toleration, I shall confine myself to the fol-
lowing, as of most peculiar concernment to us. In the
first place, it promotes population, on which the stability
and security of government so much depend. Moderation
of government, of which toleration in religion makes a
very considerable part, as it attaches natives, and encour-
rages industry, so it must promote marriage by facilitating
the maintenance of families, and opening a prospect of
happiness of the offspring. Besides this, toleration at-
tracts and invites foreigners, and causes an accession of
arts and improvements as well as of people. It is worthy
of observation, likewise, that countries, where liberty of
conscience is most liberally granted, become the retreat
of the most honest and consciencious emigrators, who are
most sensible of its value, and most apt to be oppressed for
their integrity, in adhering to their religion. The power-
ful and populous state of Holland, which has not less
than five millions of inhabitants, has been attributed, by
all impartial judges, to the beneficial influence of tolera-
tion; and the present flourishing state of Pennsylvania,
and the great influx of people of all nations and religions,
manifestly shew how alluring the fruits of religious liberty
are to the oppressed and persecuted.

Virginia, in particular, would find her account in pro-
curing the settlement of foreigners, as it would augment
the proportion of free men, and lessen the danger and
the evil consequences of slavery. I leave this hint to be im-
proved by every sagacious friend to this country. Unani
mity and harmony among the colonies is indispensably
necessary for the safely and property of the whole. The
growing number of people, the extent of situation, dif-
ference in the forms of government, and variety of customs
and opinions, must daily render such a union and har-
mony more difficult. These obstructions to union must
likewise be when arbitrary attempts from Europe cease to
compel it, and unavoidable contests and national preju-
dices begin to banish the sense of a community of in-
terests. It would, therefore, be a noble precaution in
each provintial legislature, to frame their laws with an
eye to the good of the whole, and so as to preserve uni-
versal concord and affection. What can be more ne-
cessary in this view than tenderness towards dissenters?
We must always expect to have some of them among us,
who are allied, by religious profession, to many in the
sister colonies, and shall we caress those at a distance as

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friends and brethren, and shall we be so inhospitable as
to distress those who reside among ourselves? Can any
thing be concieved more likely to alienate the affections
of the people of the other colonies than the violation of
the sacred rights of their christian brethren? Will they
think us real friends to christianity when we thus renounce
charity and forebearance? Will they believe us true to the
cause of civil liberty when we disavow religious liberty,
so indissolubly connected with it? In a word, can they
take us for true friends to dissenters abroad when we shew
ourselves enemies to them at home? Or can they look
upon us as firm friends to America when we make laws
that would injure so many of its inhabitants if they but
set their feet in our government, and worship their Maker
as they do at home?

In the last place, I proposed to consider whether any
benefit can accrue to the dissenters themselves from the
civil prosecution of them. As no one can pretend to say
their bodies or estates are the better for imprisonment, or
other punishment, the good of the soul only can be in-
tended. We read in scripture, it is true, of some being giv-
en up to Satan, that their bodies might be afflicted for the
saving of their souls; but to legitimate such a procedure
now, it ought to be proved that the officer is the Devil,
and the judge an apostle; points not so easy to be made

I cannot persuade myself there is need of saying much
to disprove the doctrine that men are to be whipped out
of heresy, or brought into the light of the gospel by the
darkness of a dungeon; that their minds are to be set at
liberty from error by the confinement of their bodies, and
that truth and reason cannot make their way into the
understanding without the illuminating arguments of
violence and terror. It may be more to my purpose,
perhaps, to substitute the following reflection.>/p>

The major part of the dissenters in this colony have
been chiefly stigmatized with enthusiasm and fanaticism.
It is not my intention to enquire whether they are inno-
cent or culpable in this particular. Even allowing the
reproach to be just, I take it to be very obvious that pe-
nal laws must be detrimental to them. All who are ac-
quainted with these people must know that the ruined
and degenerate state of human nature, and the opposition
between the spirit of the world and the spirit of holiness,
are doctrines held by them in the most strict sense, and
that most of their other principal doctrines are grafted
on these. Now I would desire every sober person to con-
sider whether opposition and force in the least tend to
eradicate such opinions, or to abate their zeal in main-
taining them. The reformation of the world is the end
of all religion and preaching, and it is natural for those
who undertake it to proportion their zeal and diligence
to their apprehension of its wickedness. Certainly then
it is impolitic to attempt to suppress a religion whose fun-
damental article must receive confirmation from the very
nature of the attempt. All violent endeavours against
them cannot fail to magnify their sense of the danger and
misery of their enemies, and convince them more and
more of the necessity of encreasing their fervour and in-
dustry. I cannot put a conclusion to this discourse with-
out expostulating a little with those who have been most
active in promoting the prosecution of dissenters. If any
of the reverend clergy are in this number, I would desire
to know of you, gentlemen, where you learned this doc-
trine of persecution for conscience sake. Your divine
master never taught it when on earth; his apostles never
gave the least countenance to it, unless it was by suffer-
ing patiently under it. On the contrary, does not the
meekness of your master, and gentleness of his doctrines,
continually admonish you for it? Ought not the example
of the apostles and primitive christians to make you
ashamed of your conduct? And does not the declaration
of the once persecuting, but then converted Paul, that
the weapons of your warfare are not carnal, stand re-
corded against you? Call to remembrance your noble
predecessors Crammer, Latimer, Hooper, Ridley, &c. and
learn of them to suffer, not to inflict persecution. Do
not forget that you owe your religion and rights of con-
science to the boldness of these men, in defending christi-
an liberty against antichristian persecutors. And can you
be so unjust as to deny to others the privileges purchased
for all protestants with the blood of such glorious mar-
tyrs: Will you adopt principles which must condemn
the founders of the church you live in, and justify those
who strove to demolish it? Or will you, in one breath,
renounce the right of others, to punish you for differ-
ence of judgement, and arrogate the right of punishing
others for difference of judgment? If a papist ask on what
authority you separate from the Roman communion,
you answer, conscience directs it, and I plead the right
of private judgment. If a dissenter forsake your commu-
nion, is he not entitled to the same right of private judg-
ment? You cannot be so weak as to say you contend for
truth and necessary reformation, but the dissenters are
running into error and fantastic refinement; for the
right of conscience consists in every man’s making the dis-
tinction for himself.

If I am addressing any clergyman who have come over
to the church of England from some other protestant
church, I confess myself at a loss of what to say to you.
The inconsistency, baseness, and inhumanity, of your
conduct, is beyond expression; nor is it possible to assign
a palliating excuse for you. You cannot plead igno-
rance; for yourselves have used the right of private
judgment when you changed your religion. You cannot
plead the prejudices of custom and education; for you
disclaimed these when you became converts to the church
of England. To say the truth, there appears but too
much room to suspect that you have been governed neither
by ignorance nor a mistaken zeal for religion, neither by
prepossession nor any thing else than a hope that the put-
ting a stop to dissention and enquiry would enable you
the more quietly to enjoy those secular emoluments which
you have prostituted your consciences to obtain.

As for such laymen as disply their heroism in distress-
ing their fellow subjects on account of their opinions and
practices in religion, I should be glad to know whether
they intend the honour and maintenance of the laws, or
the advancement of christianity. If they intend the first,
I would ask why their public spirit is not equally affected
at the other laws that are daily infringed? Gaming,
swearing, drunkenness, and travelling on the sabbath,

Page 3
Column 1

are as strictly forbidden by the law as preaching and
praying, and, I presume, not less injurious to civil so-

If they pretend religion for what they do, it is natural
to enquire whether they are equally consciencious in ex-
tirpating wickedness and irreligion of every kind. But
is there any evidence of this? Are they more concerned
at the contempt of the laws of God, and more circum-
spect in their christian behaviour, than others around
them? Do they shew themselves on all occasions the pro-
moters of virture and piety, and distinguish themselves
by their zeal in abolishing licentious customs? Let their
friends and neighbours say whether they are faithful in
reproving their offending brethren, and inculcating the
meekness sobriety, and charity, enjoined by the laws of
Christ. Let their families say whether they are careful
in setting good examples at home, in worshipping their
Maker, in instructing their children and servants, and
in studying the sacred scriptures; and let their own hearts
say whether they are doing as they would be done by,
and as becomes one human being to do by another.

I would further ask these men of violence whether they
are influenced in what they do by a rational approbation
of the articles and discipline of the church? If they an-
swer in the affirmative, it may be justly demanded why
they do not employ some of their zeal against the clergy,
who notoriously neglect and deviate from them? But if
they do not cordially approve of the doctrines of the
church, let every candid man determine whether they be
not in fact dissenters themselves; and is it not egregious
injustice and inhumanity to refuse to others the liberty
they secretly assume to themselves?

When these pretended friends to the government and
public religion come to be tried in such a way as this,
every man of judgment must perceive that they are either
infatuated bigots, or contemners of all real goodness;
who being destitute of all care of their immortal part,
and insensibly of the value of the sacred rights of con-
science, think little of the crime and cruelty of denying
them to others.


Mrs. RIND,
Please to insert the following QUERIES in your next gazette.

1. WHETHER the absolute power given by the
militia law to the lieutenant of every county
to appoint all the officers under him is not productive of
too great influence?

2. Whether this influence does not extend to the
men under these officers command? Whether the people
can then be free, or whether they are not in some degree
of slavery?

3. Whether the absolute exercise of this power in
the lieutenant is not the principal cause of that indiffer-
ence and ignorance of the military discipline too often
seen in many of the officers in our militia, while merit
and qualification are quite disregarded?

4. Whether the legislature would not more effectually
remove this error if the several officers, to supply vacan-
cies, or to command new companies, were to be chosen
by, and in the court martials respectively, or the major
part of them then present, with the same reason that
magistrates and vestrymen are to be chosen by a majority?

BOSTON, April 18.

A LETTER from St. Croix, dated March 14, says:
”To complete the ruin of this island, we have a
stampact, which has just taken place, and is perhaps the
most oppressive order ever imposed, even in oppressive govern-
ments. Every man in common business is obliged ot use stamp
paper. A running account is forfeited if on common paper,
and the party rendering it severely fined; receipts are not
valid unless stamped; paper for obligations are excessive
high, some sheets costing 200 piece of eight; a sheet for a
bill of sale is four pieces of eight, for an account four ryals.
At this rate the country will soon lose all the English in-
habitants; for no true Englishman will ever live under
such oppression. These stamps are not all we are to expect;
a few months will convince us that the expences of that kind
of paper will be trivial to other burthens and taxes we shall
be made to pay, such as a heavy poll tax on the white people.
All dry goods are, and must, be stamped, and such as are
not must be forfeited; also an additional duty on produce is
expected. These are great hardships on the continent, as
well as us here; and I do not know what way to bring our
tyrants to reason, but by your with-holding your trade from
us one year. I believe the inhabitants would suffer a tem-
porary inconvenience for a lasting establishment, on a good
footing; for by a stagnation of trade from America, even
for a few months, little or no money would go into the king’s
treasury, and then our governor would see the dependence
of this island was on the continent both for the means of
sustenance and money.”


By captain Hindson, in a short passage from Jamaica,
we learn, that a few days before he sailed captain Mor-
gan arrived there from the Downs, who on his passage
spoke the Mercury Packet, captain Sharpe, from Ben-
gal and Madrass for London, dispatched home with the
very important news of the city of Tanjour being taken
by the East India company’s troops, under the command
of general Spencer, who made the king prisoner, and
that the city, with the king, was agreed to be ransomed;
also that another province in India, taken by the compa-
ny’s troops, previous to the capture of Tanjour, had been
disposed of for 1400,000£.600,000£. of which was then on
board the said packet, as a remittance to the company.

Extract of a letter from London, dated February 18.
”Six ships of war and seven regiments, are ordered
for America with all expedition; for what purpose time
must discover. The premier is much perplexed, on ac-
count of the behaviour of the Bostonians; and Great
Britain is determined to enforce due obedience to her
laws, as the mother country. The letters sent to Boston
by Dr. Franklin have made great noise here, and he has
been roughly handled by the ministry for the same; but
it is pretty well known, with us, that the said letters were
given by Mr. Whateley to the late honourable George
Grenville, at whose death they fell into the hands of lord
Temple, who gave them to the honourable Mr. Fitzher-
bert, and they were by that gentleman to Dr. Franklin.”

Column 2

WILLIAMSBURG, MAY 12.<,br>Extract of a letter from a gentleman of character in
Dumfries to his friend in this city.

”The frost and snow, on Wednesday and Thursday morn-
ing, have made great havock with the tobacco plants, and
almost every thing that is growing. It is the general opi-
nion that what plants are left the fly will destroy. But
what is still more alarming, the wheat fields are in gene-
ral destroyed. This was not discovered till Friday. On
Saturday morning, when this news came to Dumfries, it
was not believed; but the accounts coming in from every
quarter, confirming it, shewed such a melancholy counte-
nance in the face of every person, that it is more easily
understood than described. I can with certainty inform
you that, to appearance, our wheat on the river and creeks
is greatly hurt. Judge you for the frontiers, and our
northern brethren. It is reported in Dumfries that Mr.
Whiting, and several of the farmers above, have opened
their wheat fields for pasturage.”

By an express, just arrived from Fincastle county, we
are informed, that very lately three or four skirmishes
happened between the white people and the Shawanese
Indians. We cannot affirm what occasioned the dispute,
but are told that one of the white men had taken some
small matter from the Indians, which irritated them to
arms; but were soon repelled by the other party, who
killed eleven of them, seven of which they scalped. Ano-
ther of the Indians was terribly wounded in the groin,
and it was imagined, when this express came away, that
he could not possibly recover.

The Brilliant, Miller, and Martin, Clark, from Lon-
don, the York, Rose, and ______, Benton, from White-
haven, are arrived in York river; and the Donald,
Ramsay, from Glasgow, in James river.

RALEIGH and ACADEMICUS could not possibly
appear in this paper; but will certainly have places in
our next. We should also have complied with HOB’S re-
quest had room permitted. We acknowledge the receipt
of two or three other pieces, which have met with our
approbation, and shall speedily be attended to.

Just imported from London, and to be disposed of by the
subscriber, at a low advance, for ready money only,
A NEAT and elegant assortment of MILLINERY,
JEWELLERY, and other GOODS, which are
exceeding well chose, and in the newest taste, viz. Patent,
nett, and blond lace hoods, rich suits of ditto, puffs,
whims, fancy, true Italian, and gauze caps, ditto nosegay
and breast flowers, sultains, egrets, fillets, baves, plumes,
minionet lace, blond ditto, and thread edging, gentle-
mens laced ruffles, ladies tupees and French curles, blue,
black, and white ostrich feathers, riding hats, suitable
gloves to ditto, Jacob’s ladder, velvet collars, locket,
crown taste, and a great variety of other ribbands, true
Italian, lace, ribband, fancy, and silver stomachers, silver
corals and bells, plain and set combs, paste buckles,
bows and soletaires, various kinds of sprig and paste pins,
blue agate set round with marcasite, pinch wax, real gar-
net and mock, paste, white wax and wax pearl necklaces
and earrings, cluster, garnet, plain gold, and marcasite
lockets and crosses, black pins, earring and stay hooks,
paste ditto, gold bands, buttons, and loops, watch strings,
keys, seals, and trinkets, smelling bottles, tortoiseshell dan-
dy prats, pocketbooks with instruments, fine India cot-
ton thread, floss, and sewing silk, green silk purses,
needles, pins, bobbins and tapes, single and double black
pins, curing tongues, and hair powder, patent, ribbed,
and white China hose, fine cotton and thread ditto, Dids-
bury’s shoes, Gresham’s pumps, pink, blue, and white
sattin ditto, pink, blue, and white sattin quilts, black
ruffell ditto, beautiful wedding and French mounted
fans, second mourning, black, and common ditto, rich
white flowered and plain lustring, shot and striped ditto,
plain and striped taffeties, India chintzes and calllicoes,
fine Irish linen, superfine India dimity, black bombazeen,
grained kid, lamb, silk gloves and mits, boys caps and
feathers, chipped cane hats, bonnets, and cloaks,
book and thick muflins, cambricks, lawns, white and
black gauzes, catgut and queen’s nett book muslin and
lawns, needle worked aprons, black, white and coloured
flowered casting handkerchiefs, muslin lawn, gauze,
and checkered ditto, rich sword suits, undressed dolls, very
nice brass mounted trucks, either for chariot or chaise;
and a multiplicity of other articles, too tedious to enu-
merate. M. DICKERSON.

N. B. She returns those gentlemen and ladies, who
have favoured her with their custom, her most cordial
thanks; particularly her good friends in the country;
and as it shall ever be her study to give satisfaction, they
may rely on their orders being attended to with the
strictest care, by their much obliged, and very humble
servant, M. D.

PURSUANT to a decree of the honourable the gene-
ral court will be sold, for ready money, at Hamp-
shire courthouse, on the second Tuesday in June next,
three tracts of LAND, of 500 acres each, in the said
county of Hampshire, on George Andis’s mill run, and
adjoining the lands of Henry Heath, the property of the
late Mr. Joseph Watson, deceased, and by him mort-
gaged to Mr. Garret Meade of Philadelphia, who has
obtained a decree for a sale to satisfy his demand. A
conveyance, with special warranty, will be made the pur-
chaser by The SHERIFF of HAMPSIRE.
*** These lands were formerly advertised in this paper
for sale, and prevented by bad weather, but will now be
sold without fail.

DUMFRIES, May 2, 1774.
The members of the Dumfries jockey club are de-
sired to meet here on Saturday the 11th of June,
to settle the time of the races. Such members as cannot
conveniently attend, and want to fix them at any parti-
cular time, will please to signify the same by letter to
me, and their respective proposals shall be laid before the

To be SOLD in Brunswick, on the Great Creek,
SEVEN hundred and thirty acres of land, most part
of which is good for tobacco. There are several
improvements on it, as to buildings, a good orchard, &c.
Any person inclinable to purchase may know the terms
by applying to the subscriber, on the premises.

Column 3

ALL persons indebted to the estate of Richard Kel-
sick, deceased, of the borough of Norfolk, are
requested to make immediate payment; and those who
have any demands against the said estate, are desired to
make them know to

WHEREAS it has been reported by some ill disposed
person or persons, and that in the most virulent
and sarcastic terms, which is commonly the case of
malevolents, with a determined resolution it should
reach the ears of every one, and was consequently propa-
gated by some or other of the vicious race of mortals,
who delight in nothing better than backbiting their neigh-
bours, that I the subscriber hereof have been guilty of
using too much familiarity amongst my scholars, and
thereby rendered them disobedient, so that it could not
possibly be expected they would profit much in coming to
me: In vindication of that notorious falsity, and for the
clearer proof to that species of unenlightened being, or
beings, I do entreat him, or them, to repair to my
school room, at Mr. Robert Jackson’s, whensoever it shall
suit, and should he or they be disposed to believe his, or
their own eyes, I can flatter myself to be capable of shew-
ing them as well disciplined a school as any in the city of
Williamsburg; and in order to prevent any the like dis-
turbances for the future amongst my benevolent and kind
wellwishers, or friends, who informed me of this unjust
charge, he or they shall receive as severe a reprimand as
can be offered by his or their humble servant.

WANTED for the lighthouse directors eight second-
hand ANCHORS, nearly a thousand weight
each. Any person having such for sale are desired to
make their terms know to the subscriber in Norfolk.

TO be fought on Whitsuntide Monday, at Mr. Har-
dyman Dancy’s (or better known by the name of
Eggmond’s Ordinary) between the gentlemen of the up-
per and lower ends of Charles city. To shew 20 cocks
for 3£. the odd one. There will be a
ball in the evening for the ladies.

ON Wednesday the 14th of April last ran away from
the subscriber, in Westmoreland county, Thomas
Puttrell, an indented white servant man, by trade a
butcher, but understands gardening and farming, and
says he is acquainted with the business of a bricklayer
and plaisterer. This is the third time of his running
away, and when he went off before he was near two
months in the neighbourhood of Richmond town, and
lived with one Isaac Parker, and probably may be in that
part of the country now. In July last he was taken up
in Bedford county. He is a trunchy well made man, of
a fair complexion, has hazle eyes, brown hair, which
curls in his neck, is round faced, has very white teeth,
which he shews when he speaks or grins, and speaks
sharp and quick. He has the common apparel of ser-
vants, and he has a forged pass, signed by James Mose-
ley, master of the schooner Nancy, discharged from Alex-
andria, and is called a native of old Nansemond town in
Virginia. There went off with the said Thomas Puttrell
an indented white servant man belonging to Thomas
Attwell of Westmoreland, who has likewise a forged
pass, signed by the same James Moseley, and is therein
called John Underwood, although his right name is Ed-
ward Duberg. He is a slim, well made man, near six
feet high, and a sailor, and has been in Spain, Portugal,
and France. He says he was brought up at Cambridge,
and pretends to understand Latin, French, Spanish,
Portuguese, and Dutch. He came in the Success’s In-
crease, captain Curtis, into Rappahanpock, and was sold
for a schoolmaster. He robbed one Mrs. Hume of about
20£. worth of wearing apparel, among which were some
jewellery, caps, aprons, handkerchiefs, &c. which he
and Puttrell sold as they went along. The above servants
were seen on their way to Gloucester town, between
York and Rappahannock, and it is supposed they will
pass for sailors, and go to Norfolk, or make for Caro-
lina. Whoever apprehends them, so as they be delivered
to their masters, shall have a reward of FOUR POUNDS
for each, besides what the law allows.RICHARD LEE,

RUN away from my plantation near this place, last
night, two servant men, named George and John
Allen, very lately imported in the Justitia, consigned to
Mr. Thomas Hodge, at Leeds town. George is a likely
young fellow, about 25 years of age, 5 feet 10 or 11
inches high, stoops much, and is remarkably round
shouldered; had on when he went away a dark coloured
bearskin jacket and breeches, and a small round hat
with a black ribband and buckle. John is brother to
George, slender made, and two inches under his size;
had on the same sort of clothes, only a pair of old shoes
cut open at the toes. Any person who will apprehend
the said servants, and secure them so that I may get
them, shall be entitled to the above reward; and all per-
sons are hereby forewarned, as they may probably pre-
tend to pass for sailors, from carrying them out of the
Dumfries, April 25.

STOLEN from the subscriber’s door on Saturday
night the 7th instant (May) a dark brown bay horse,
with saddle and bridle on, about 15 hands high, nine
years old, trots and gallops, is a little touched in his
wind, had a long bob tail and hanging mane, and no
perceivable brand. Whoever brings the said horse to
me shall receive TWENTY SHILLINGS reward, and
FIVE POUNDS on conviction of the thief.
Williamsburg, May 10, 1774.

TAKEN up, in Buckingham, a small bay mare,
with three white feet, has a small star in her fore-
head, grey hairs in her tail and mane, docked, but no
perceivable brand, about 2 or 3 years old, about 4 feet
1 inch high, and is very gentle. Posted, and appraised
to 3£. 10s. * ISAAC CHASTIN.

TAKEN up, a small dark iron grey mare colt, about
2 years old, has a long tail, and is branded on the
ear buttock, as well as I can make out, 0I. Posted,
d appraised to 2£. 5s. JOHN BRUIN.

Page 4
Column 1

THE ship Caesar, William Wetherald, master, bur-
then about 450 hogsheads of tobacco, now lies at
Norfolk, and has made but one voyage. Apply to said
*** On board of said ship is a quantity of Whitehaven
COAL, of the best quality, which will be sold very
cheap. Apply to Mr. Joseph Kidd, in Williamsburg.

A PLANTATION in good order for cropping, none
of the land having been cleared above six years,
with all necessary houses, quite new, together with 1500
acres of exceeding rich land, the soil of which is so good
that it will bring large tobacco for five or six years with-
out dung. I have made on this plantation above three
thousand pounds of tobacco per share. The place is very
healthy, and has a fine range for stock. This land lies
in the lower end of Buckingham county, near to Appo-
mattox river, on each side of Great Ducker’s and Mayo
creeks. Tobacco has been carried above this land near
to Petersburg by water, and last month, in the dry wea-
ther, two canoe loads of wheat were carried near to
Petersburg, and the canoes brought back; they were
loaded but a little below this land. I make no doubt
but Appomattox river will be soon cleared, and then the
expence of sending wheat, tobacco, &c. will be trifling.
Any person inclinable to purchase will see, by the produce
of the land, that it is exceeding rich. I really do not
know any better high land in the colony. This tract of
land is well timbered, and has excellent water on it. I
do not know a better place for a merchant mill than is on
Ducker’s creek. People are going much on raising wheat
in these parts, and a good mill would be very advantage-
ous to the owner. Also another tract of land of 126
acres, in Albemarle county, I believe about ten miles
from the courthouse, joining Mr. James Harris and the
quarters of Mr. John Winston. On this land is a small
plantation, a good apple orchard, &c. The land is
good, and my price so low, that I am convinced any
person who viewed either of the above tracts of land
would not hesitate to give the price I shall ask. Neither
of these tracts are under any incumbrance whatsoever.
A reasonable time of payment will be allowed.

To be SOLD, on the premises, to the highest bidder,
on Monday the 25th of July, pursuant to the will of
William Anderson, deceased,
A TRACT of LAND containing 394 acres, on
Blackwater Swamp, in Surry, within 8 or 9 miles
of Cabin Point. The land is of a very good quality,
and well timbered. There are no improvements, and
not above two or three acres cultivated. One third of
the purchase money to be paid on the day of sale, and
twelve months credit will be allowed for the other two
thirds, on giving bond, with approved security, to

CAROLINE county, April 30, 1774.
AS I intend soon to remove to North Carolina, I
shall be glad that every person who thinks he has
a claim against me would make it known. Those that
are indebted to me, by account, are desired to settle the
same. Mr. John Taylor, of this county, will finish the
suits I am engaged in; and any payments made to him
for me will be allowed.

RUN away on the 20th of April last, from the sloop
FRIENDSHIP, William Johnston Rysam, master,
lying at Yorktown, MINGO, a stout well made black
negro fellow, of a down cast look, limps on one side,
Virginia born, and about 35 years old, has been used to
plantation work and going by water. Whoever will deliver
him to William Reynolds, esquire, at York, John Perrin,
esquire, of Gloucester, or the subscriber, at Norfolk,
shall have THRITY SHILLINGS reward, besides what
the law allows. 3 MATTHEW PHRIPP

RUN away from the subscriber, on the 1st instant
(May) a servant man named John Mason, of a
dark complexion, short dark hair, about 5 feet 10 inches
high, has lately had a cut over one of his eyes, supposed
to be the left, and is by trade a perukemaker; had on a
dark blue coat, striped waistcoat, white breeches, and
pale blue stockings. Whoever secures the said servant,
so that I get him again, shall receive 40s. and if delivered
to me in Norfolk, 3£. DAVID REYNOLDS.

TAKEN up, in Fincastle, a black mare, about seven
years old, branded on the near shoulder A, with
4 white feet, and a blaze in her face, paces, is hipshot,
and about 13 hands 3 inches high. Posted, and ap-
praised to 7£. JAMES DAVIS.

TAKEN up, in Fincastle, a sorrel horse, 4 years old,
13 hands and an inch high, with a white mane and
tail, his fore legs from the knees down almost white, and
the hoofs of his fore feet twist in wards, has a star in his
forehead, a small snip on his nose, branded on the near
jaw T, and has a bell on, with a leather collar and dou-
ble buckle. Posted, and appraises to 4£. 5s.

TAKEN up, in Lunenburg, a bay horse, about 9
years old, branded on the near buttock SH, and
about 4 feet 10 inches high. Posted, and appraised to

TAKEN up in Lunenburg, a small roan sorrel
mare, about 4 feet 1 inch high, branded on the
near shoulder and buttock פ, has a large blaze in her
face, her two hind feet white up to her hams, appears
to be about 10 or 12 years old, with a hanging mane
and switch tail. Posted, and appraised to 3&pound. 10s.

A CANDID refutation of the heresy imputed by
ro. C. Nicholas, esquire, to the reverend S. Hen-
SOLD at both printing offices. Price 2s. 6d.

WHEREAS Mr. Kemp Plummer, and Mr. William
Plummer, junior, have conveyed away ten NE-
GROES, belonging to the estate of major Kemp Plum-
mer, deceased, consisting of men, women, and children,
which said negroes they have no right to, this is to
forewarn the public from purchasing any of them.
GEORGE W. PLUMMER, executor.

Column 2

Fincastle county, to wit,
GEORGE the third, by the grace of God, of Great
Britain, France, and Ireland, king, defender of
the faith, &c. To the sheriff of Fincastle county, greet-
ing: We command you that you summon Francis Wil-
ley, an infant under the age of twenty one years, son
and heir of James Willey deceased, to appear before our
justices of our court of our said county, at the courthouse,
on the first Tuesday in next month, to answer a bill in
chancery, exhibited against him by William Calhoon;
and this he shall in now wise omit, under the penalty of
100£. and have then there this writ. Witness John Byrd,
clerk of our said court, this 9th day of June, in the 13th
year of our reign. * JOHN BYRD.

A UALUABLE tract of land, lying in the lower end
of Amherst county, on James river, containing
upwards of 1000 acres, nearly adjoining the lands of
Doctor William Cabell, running near three miles on
the river, with an island adjacent, containing between
30 and 40 acres, to be sold with or without the said
tract. There is a plantation hereon in good order for
cropping, and sufficient for 10 or 12 hands; also a white
shad fishery, and a remarkable natural fishpond, with a
plenty of limestone for building. Any person in-
clinable to purchase may know the terms by applying to
the subscriber, in Henrico, who is one of the trustees of
Mr. John Howard. 3 THOMAS PROSSER.

To be SOLD, by the subscriber, at Stafford courthouse,
on the 2d Monday in June next, if fair, otherwise the
first fair day,
THREE tracts of land, adjoining each other, and
lying in Stafford county, on Potowmack creek;
on one of which is a very commodious tavern, and other
necessary houses, garden, &c. within a few yards of the
courthouse. The situation is very advantageous for a
publican’s business, and remarkable for fish and fowl.
Fifteen acres of the land were laid down in timothy about
four years ago, and there are near 40 acres of marsh,
which might be easily reclaimed, and at a small expense.
Terms will be made known on the day of sale.
5 GEORGE DENT, junior.

FOR sale, by the subscriber in Hanover town, at a
low advance, for ready money, or on short credit,
GERMAN OZNABRIGS, ROLLS, and several bales

WILLIAMSBURG, April 26, 1774.
THE subscriber being under a necessity of returning
to England the ensuing summer, will sell off his
remaining STOCK of GOODS at a low advance to a
wholesale purchaser; and desires all persons indebted to
him to pay off their respective balances immediately, that
his affairs may be properly adjusted before his departure.

NORFOLK, April 21, 1774.
NOTICE is hereby given, that a number of vessels
will be wanted this summer to bring about 6000
tons of stone from Mr. Brooke’s quarry, on Rappahan-
nock, and land the same on Cape Henry, for the light-
house. Any person inclinable to engage in such work
are desired to treat with Mathew Phripp, Paul Loyall,
and Thomas Newton, junior, esquires. The directors
of the lighthouse will also be glad to purchase one or
two flat bottomed vessels from 80 to 120 tons burthen.

RUN away from the subscriber, in Suffex, the 16th
of February last, a negro man named JAMES,
about 22 years of age, of a yellowish complexion, 5 feet
2 or 3 inbces high; had on, and took with him, an old
hat, a fearnought jacket of a purple colour, a mixed
yarn jacket without sleeves, and something longer than
the other, a striped Virginia cloth shirt, with the six white
ones, and two of blue, negro cotton breeches, with a
green streak across the fore parts, a pair of old shoes,
and negro cotton boots. Any person that will bring the
said slave to the subscriber shall have five pounds, if
taken out of the colony, and forty shillings if taken in
Virginia. 3 THOMAS HUSON.

COMMITTED to the gaol of Charles City, on
Saturday the 16th instant (April) a lusty negro
woman, who says her name is Peggy Wilson, 5 feet 7
inches high, formerly belonged to one Richard Hunt, on
Roanoke, by him sold to David Taylor, of York county,
and purchased of said Taylor by one Peyton, for the
use of Mr. John Tabb, in Amelia. The owner is desired
to pay charges, and take her away.
3 STITH GREGORY, gaoler.

TAKEN up, in Cumberland, near the lower bridge,
on Williss’s creek, a bright bay mare, about 4 feet
6 inches high, supposed to be 3 or 4 years old, not dock-
ed, both hind feet white, has a few white hairs in her
forehead, and branded : on the near buttock. Posted,
and appraised to 9£. * DRURY WOODSON.

A VALUABLE tract of LAND in Kingston parish,
Gloucester county, containing 500 acres, lying on
a large creek which makes out of East river, a fine place
for fish and oysters; there is land cleared sufficient for six
hands, an overseer’s house and other out buildings; the
uncleared land abounds with a great quantity of white
oak and pine timber, the timber supposed, by good
judges, to be worth 1000£.

WILLIAMSBURG. April, 20, 1774.
BY order of his Excellency in council, I hereby give
notice to all concerned, that those officers and soldiers
who served in the late war as RANGERS, or as part
of the militia, will not, as such, be allowed, in future,
any land under his Majesty’s proclamation in OCTOBER
1763; but those only who were either in the regular
service, or else in some provincial regiment.


FOR SALE, and to be seen in Williamsburg, from
the first of May and for some time after, the high
blooded horse MASTER STEPHEN; he is young,
strong, and large, has a good bottom, and runs fast.
Whoever may be inclinable to know his pedigree, or to
see him, may be satisfied by applying to Philip L. Lee,
at his house in Williamsburg. 3

Column 3

And to be ENTERED upon at CHRISTMAS next,
A VERY valuable tract of LAND in King William
county, on Pamunkey river, adjoining the land of
the late Mr. John Smith, of Hanover county, deceased,
containing 800 acres, more or less, the soil is very rich,
and exceedingly well adapted for wheat, corn or tobacco,
particularly the first and second, being low grounds;
and there is a considerable quantity of high grounds.
It has plenty of good pine and oak timber upon it, con-
venient houses, and is in good order for cropping, is
about two miles from Hanover town, and very convenient
to church and two mills. Any person inclinable to pur-
chase may be shewn the land by applying to Mr. Christo-
pher Taliaferro, or Mr. William Jones, who resides near
the same and the terms may be also known by applying
to these gentlemen, or to the subscriber.

To be SOLD, to the highest bidder, at Goochland court-
house, on Monday the 20th of June, being court day,
A TRACT of rich, well timbered LAND, lying
opposite to Elk Island, in Goochland county, be-
longing to the estate of Mr. John Smith, deceased, con-
taining 2000 acres, which will be put up in four separate
lots. Likewise a tract containing between 3 and 400
acres, lying on both sides of the Little Bird creek, near
the head thereof, in the aforesaid county. Those lands
having been fully described in a former advertisement
renders it unnecessary here. The time of payment will
be made known on the day of sale, and bonds, with good
security, required of the purchasers.
*** The purchasers at the different sales of the negroes
and personal estate of Joseph and John Smith, deceased,
are desired to take notice, that their bonds will in a very
short time become payable, and that no indulgence can
or will be allowed to any person. I shall constantly at-
tend at the county courts of Henrico and Hanover, and
the meeting of merchants in Williamsburg, in order to
receive payment. Those who have open accounts on
the books of John Smith, deceased, are once more re-
quested to come and settle.

TAKEN up, in King and Queen county, a sorrel
horse, about 4 feet 7 inches high, appears to be
about 5 years old, has a snip on his nose, no brand per-
ceivable, trots and gallops, and appraised to 12£.

The noted swift HORSE
(now, perhaps, the fattest horse in VIRGINIA)
STANDS at my house, in the lower end of Caroline
county, and covers mares this season at 2£. 10s.
good pastureage gratis, and great care taken of the mares,
but will not be answerable for any that may get away.
TRISTRAM SHANDY was got by Morton’s Traveller,
his dam by Janus, out a very fine English mare.

To be SOLD, together or in parcels,
THAT fertile and well timbered tract of LAND,
lying in Princess Anne county, known by the name
of GIBBS’S WOODS, whereon are several settlements,
and whereof Jeremiah Tinker, esquire, grandson of the
late governor Gibbs now stands seized, under the deed
of gift of his mother, the daughter and heiress of the
said governor Gibbs. Persons inclining to purchase may
be informed of the terms by applying to Mr. James
Parker, merchant in Norfolk, or to Edward Foy, in
Williamsburg, who will give an undoubted title. tf

THE several sheriffs in arrear for his Majesty’s
quitrents are requested to make full payment at the
April court; and as it is my duty to enforce a
speedy collection of this revenue, it is hoped that those
against whom judgments have been already obtained will
attend to this notice.


THE ship OLIVE, Captain William Barrass, lies
at Broadways, on Appomattox, will sail early in
April, having three fourths of her cargo engaged can
take in about one hundred hogsheads of tobacco, on
liberty of consignment. For terms apply to Mr. Bolling
Stark, in Petersburg, or us at Norfolk.

STANDS at Rosegill, and will cover mares at FOUR
POUNDS the season. Those who send mares must
send the money, otherwise they shall not be left. The
valuable qualities, and the pedigree, of this horse, are
sufficiently notorious.

A FULL blooded horse, by FRARNOUGHT, out of
an imported mare, will stand this season at Mr.
Richard Taylor’s, near Petersburg, to cover mares, at
POUNDS the season, payable in October next. Those
gentlemen who are inclined to send mares may be assured
that the greatest care will be taken of them; but I will
not be answerable for any that shall get away.

ESSEX county, April 2, 1774.
IN consequence of the death of Mr. James Campbell of
Essex, who was acting attorney for Messieures John,
William, and James M’Call, M’Call and Elliott, and
M’Call, Elliott, and Snodgrass, in the business formerly
under the management of Mr. William Snodgrass, we
have received from his executors the books and papers of
said companies, and have put them into the hands of Mr.
James Gordon to collect. We therefore earnestly request
all indebted to those concerns to pay off immediately, as
no further indulgence can be given. Mr. James Gordon
will reside in Tappahannock, and will attend Essex,
Middlesex, Gloucester, and King and Queen courts.

Original Format

Ink on paper



Rind, Clementina, -1774, printer, “The Virginia gazette. Number 418, Thursday May 12, 1774,” Special Collections, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, accessed May 23, 2022,

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