The Virginia Gazette, or, The Norfolk Intelligencer. May 11, 1775

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The Virginia Gazette, or, The Norfolk Intelligencer. May 11, 1775



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Committee chamber, New-York, April 6, 1775.
The following letter was received from the
general committee of South-Carolina, and
by this committee ordered to be printed.
Edward Fleming, chairman, pro. tem.
Charles-Town, South-Carolina, March 1, 1775.

IT was with equal surprize and concern that
we read, in the public prints, what passed
in your house of assembly on the 26th of
January, with respect to the proceedings of
the general congress. It is impossible for us
at this distance to conjecture the reasons which
induced the assembly to refuse their formal as-
sent to the solemn agreement of all these colo-
nies. We are obliged to suspend our judg-
ment until we hear from you ; and will not
even permit ourselves to conclude, that it is
owing either to a neglect of the united voice
of America, or to want of spirit in the cause
of freedom. - In the midst of the pain that
we feel at this singular instance of provincial
policy, we console ourselves with the appre-
hension that it was intended, not as a decla-
ration of their real inclinations, but only as a
prudential measure : That they having been
chosen antecedent to the present dispute, and
therefore not with a particular view to it,
might suppose the necessity of their interfering,
superceded by a posterior choice. We console
ourselves with the thought, that the legal re-
presentatives of your respectable colony, by re-
fusing to act, did not mean to hold up to the
world the opinion of their constituents, but
have only left it to another representation, not
so much according to the letter of the law,
but equally respectable, and as much to be de-
pended on.

We beg leave to make this remark up-
on their policy ; that they have therein singled
themselves out from the rest of the colonies,
who, as far as they have had the opportunity,
have come unanimously into the measures of
the general congress : And we cannot but
think, it would have been much more happy
for the whole, had there been no exceptions.
- Indeed, although the house of assembly in
this colony hath nobly and unanimously adopt-
ed the proceedings of the general congress,
yet have they not had it in idea to take the
matter wholly into their own hands, indepen-
dent of the provincial congress? but even
now, while that assembly is sitting, the gene-
ral committee of the colony also sits and does
business, independent of the house. A measure
this, necessary in the royal governments, where
the liableness in the assembly to suddne proro-
gations and dissolutions, renders their proceed-
ing in business wholly dependent on the crea-
tures of the crown. - Much, therefore, as we
are surprized at the conduct of your assembly,
we are not so ignorant as to imagine, it is the
definitive voice of the colony. And indeed, we
do not allow ourselves to entertain a suspicion,
that your resolutions would not be the same
with those of the rest of the colonies, if you only
had a full and free representation of the whole co-
lony, elected on the present occasion: Such a re-
presentation we hope to hear of in due time.

We are not insensible of the consequence of
your colony, in the great chain of American
union: Nor do we imagine the ministry insen-
sible of it; - we are well aware of your un-
happy situation, and of the many artful mea-
sures that have been and now are taking, if
possible, to throw you into confusion. We are
well aware of the poison that is daily distilling
from soem of your pesioned presses, and the
hireling writers that have crept in among you.
We are not ignorant of that crowd of place-
men, of contractors, of officers, and needy de-
pendents upon the crown, who are constantly
employed to frustrate your measures. We know
the dangerous tendency of being made the
head quarters of America for many years. All
these things, though they necessarily tend to

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clog the wheels of public spirit, yet to not
cause us to doubt of your public virtue, as a
colony: Nay, we assure ourselves, that your
love to constitutional liberty, to justice, and
your posterity, however depressed for a little
while, will at last surmount all obstacles, and
do honour to New-York.

The present struggle seems to us most glo-
rious and critical. We seem to ourselves to
stand upon the very division line, between all
the blessings of freedom, and the most abject
vassalage. The very idea of an earthly power,
which shall bind the present, and future mil-
lions of America, in all cases whatsoever - in
the direction of which we are to have no more
voice than our oxen, and over which we can
have no constitutional controul, fills us with
horror. To hold not only our liberty and pro-
perty at will, but our lives also : as well as the
lives of all our posterity! To be absolutely
dependent for the air in which we breathe,
and the water which we drink, upon a set of
men at distance of three thousand miles
from us; who, even when they abuse that
power are out of the reach of our vengeance,
is a proposal which this colony hears with in-
dignation, and can only submit to when there
is no possible remedy. By the late detestable
acts of the British parliament respecting Ame-
rica, - all mankind will judge whether that
body may be safely entrusted with such a power.
We have now appealed to the remaining jus-
tice of the nation; we have endeavoured to
arouse them to a sense of their own dangers;
we have appealed to their mercantile interests
for our defence. Our hopes of success are not
yet damped by any thing but the possibility of
disunion among ourselves. We have the plea-
sure to inform you, that in this colony the as-
sociation takes place, as effectually as law itself.
Sundry vessels from England have already been
obliged to return with their merchandize, or
have it thrown overboard as common ballast.

We may assure you of our fixed determina-
tion to adhere to the resolutions at all hazards,
and that ministerial opposition is here obliged
to be silent: We may wish for the day when it shall
be silence among you likewise. And what-
ever noise is mad by the friends of arbitary
rule, about the design of those proceedings in
your house of assembly, - we cannot and will
not believe that you intend to desert the cause.

Three things, however, oblige us to write
to you. -

First. The general alarm which the proceed-
ings above-mentioned have given - that we
may obtain from you certain intelligence of
the disposition of your colony, whether those
proceedings are to be understood as the gene-
ral sense of the good people of New-York, or
only of a bare majority of the house.

Secondly, That we may learn from you,
whether the association of the general congress
has actually been adopted by you, and is now
put into execution. On these two points we
beg you will give us the earliest intelligence
possible, that we may be able (as we have not
the least doubt that we shall be) thereby to
quiet the anxiety of the people of this pro-
vine, and prevent the tools of ministry from
exulting at any appearance of disunion. -
And lastly, that we may suggest to you an ex-
pedient, which with great success has been
tried in this province, viz. that of a provicial
congress, in which every corner of the colony
is fully and largely represented. - As yet we
have not had the pleasure of hearing that you
have adopted this or any similar measure.
And although we would not be understood as
presuming to dictate to our brethren, yet we
would take the liberty to inform them, that
this measure has given the greatest satisifaction
here, and so firmly united the town and coun-
try, that we are thereby become one compact
regularly organized body. The enemies of
American freedom are aware of the cementing

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tendency of such a step, and wherever they
have influence, endeavour to prevent it, well
knowing, that while the different districts of a
colony are kept apart, they do not all recieve
the same information, and are exposed to the
baneful effects of jealousy and division, espe-
cially when any considerable part supposes it-
self neglected by not being called in to give its
voice. - And we find that the larger this
representation is, the less the danger of cor-
ruption and influence; the more is sly deceit
deterred from venturing its efforts; and the
more weight goes with every determination.
- The congress of this colony consists of one
hundred and eighty four members, and is by
far the fullest representation of it that ever has
been together before.

We, therefore, as brethren, united in the
same cause, do only beg leave to recommend
the above measure already found by experience
of such utility in sundry of the royal govern-
ments, especially in this. - The necessity of
electing delegates to the congress in May, we
are assured will shew the expediency of such
a provincial meeting.

We feel ourselves bound to you by the clo-
sest of ties of interest and affection. -We consider
this season as big with American glory, or with
American infamy.

We, therefore, most ardently wish you the
direction and aid of that Almighty Being, who
presides over all. - We confidently expect to
meet you in general congress, at Philadelphia,
with hearts full of zeal in our country's cause,
and full of mutual confidence in the integrity
of each other. We are, gentlemen,
Your friends and fellow-countrymen.
By order of the general committee,
Charles Pinckney, chairman.

Florence, February 18.
ON Tuesday last Cardinal Braschi was
unanimously elected Pope. He was born
at Cesena near Ravenna, in the Romagna :
is 58 years of age; was created cardinal by
the late Pope in the year 1774; and soon
after appointed treasurer of the apostolic cham-
ber; he now assumes the name of Pius VI

DEPUTATIONS are sent from hence to
Boston, to try several persons in Ame-

Extract of a letter from CORK, March 1.
"Most of the troops destined for America
are arrived here. Both officers and men never
went upon an expedition with greater reluc-
tance than on the present intended one. I
shudder at the consequences of being obliged
to fight against our fellow-subjects."

This morning upwards of 1200 drums were
sent down the river, to be carried to the Downs,
in order to be put on board the transports
bound to America.

It is assured as a fact in the city, that the
ministry have lately received some accounts
from France and Spain, which have thrown
them into great confusion, not knowing what
steps are proper to be taken in so critical an
affair: for that France has a large body of
forces ready to make a descent upon Ireland,
as soon as the forces are sent from thence to
America, and that the Spaniards have a large
fleet ready to attack some of the western islands,
but it is generally believed that Jamaica is their
principal object.

The sending off troops from Ireland, and<
making that long oppressed nation involuntari-
ly accessaries to the ruin of their fellow-subjects
in America, reminds us of that similar detest-
able policy of Charles I. who privately encou-
raged a horrid massacre in Ireland for the bet-
ter purpose of carrying on his despotic mea-
sures at hom - "but even-handed justice re-
turned the poisoned chalice to his own lips."

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[torn, illegible] es just received from Holland mention,
[torn, illegible] the Dutch stockholders are so much alarm-
[torn, illegible] at the incertitude of events which the Ame-
rican measures may occasion in our national
credit, that they are about to give orders for
selling out of English funds. Private let-
ters from Switzerland convey information of
a similar nature.

MARCH 11. On Thursday the order of the
day was read in the House of Commons, for
the House to be put into a committee on the
American papers; the Speaker then left the
chair, and Lord North having spoke some
time on the refractory behaviour of the Colo-
nies, move, "that leave be given to bring in
a bill to restrain the trade and commerce of the
colonies, of New-Jersey, Pennsylvania, Mary-
land, Virginia, and South-Carolina, to Great-
Britain, Ireland, and the British islands in the
West-Indies, for a time to be limited." Sir
Charles Whitworth, who was the chairman,
then left the chair, and reported the same to
the House, and a bill was ordered accordingly.

A Common Council is ordered for Tuesday
next, and the Lord Mayor has inserted in the
printed summons, "to consider of a petition
to the House of Lords against an unjust and
inhuman bill which has passed the H- of C-,
entitled, A bill to restrain the trade and com-
merce of the province of the Massachusetts-
Bay, &c."

EDINBURGH, March 3. We mentioned last
week that an express had arrived, ordering the
3d, 11th, and 30th regiments now in England
and Scotland, to march immediately for Ire-
land to supply the place of the eight regiments
ordered for America : On Friday last a second
express arrived, countermanding these orders,
as no regiments were to go to America : On
Wednesday a third express arrived, again or-
dering the three regiments to march for Ire-
land, as it was once more determined to send
the troops to America. Part of the 30th re-
giment has already marched.

We hear there are letters in this town from Connecti-
cut, which say, that the number of men lately assembled
at Boston, including those from Connecticut and Rhode-
Island, amounted to 60,000; that they are mostly return-
ed to their respective homes, leaving an army of about
15,000 to watch General Gage's motions.

We still seem seem to be in great suspense about our ac-
counts from Boston, the authenticity of part of them
being doubtful; however we make not the least doubt
there has been a smart engagement between the King's
troops and the provincials, in which we hear the former
has lost 302 men, killed, wounded, and taken prisoners,
and the latter 37 ; but we do not learn there was any ge-
neral officer lost on either side ; and the regular post being
now stopped between this place and Boston, it is probable
we wil remain somewhat in the dark concerning this very
disagreeable, unahppy and melancholy transaction.

A letter from Boston, dated last Monday, and received
since writing the above paragraphs, says, "The com-
munication between this town and country is entirely
stopped up, and not a soul permitted to go in or out
without a pass. This day the Governor has disarmed all
the inhabitants, after giving them his word and honour
that the soldiers should not molest nor plunder them.
Cambridge is the head quarters of the provincials, and
they are commanded by General --- : They are en-
trenching themselves at Roxbury, and erecting batteries
to play on our lines."

The following association was set on foot here last Sa-
turday, and on that day it was signed by above 1000
of our principal inhabitants. It is to be transmitted to all
the counties in the province, where we make no doubt it
will be signed by all ranks of people.

PERSWADED that the salvation of the rights and li-
berties of America depends, under God, on the firm
union of its inhabitants, in a vigorous prosecution of the
measures necessary for its safety, and convinced of the
necessity of preventing the anarchy and confusion which
attend a dissolution of the powers of government ; WE,
the freemen, freeholders, and inhabitants of the city and
county of New-York, being greatly alarmed at the avow-
ed design of the Ministry to raise a revenue in America,
and shocked by the bloody scene now acting in the Mas-
sachusetts-Bay, DO, in the most solemn manner, resolve
never to become slaves ; and do associate under all the
ties of religion, honour and love to our country, to a-
dopt and endeavour to carrry into execution, whatever
measures may be recommended by the continental congress,
or resolved upon by our provincial convention, for the
purpose of preserving our constitution, and opposing the
execution of the several arbitrary and oppresive acts
of the British parliament, until a reconciliation between
Great-Britain and America, on constitutional principles,
(which we most ardently desire) can be obtained ; - and
that we will, in all things, follow the advice of our gene-
ral committee, respecting the purposes aforesaid, the pre-
servation of peace and good order, and the safety of in-
dividuals and private property.

Extract of a letter from Boston, dated April 22 and 23.
"We have been closely besieged, and no provisions
brought to market for sevearl days, which has reduced us
to an allowance. Lieutenant Knight was the only offi-
cer killed in the engagement ; 14 officers wounded, two
of whom dangerously, 62 privates killed and missing, and
105 wounded (part of every regiment, except that at

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the castle) exclusive of marines, who suffered more than
any regiment.

"The Governor and Gentlemen of Boston have
agreed to open the town, on condition of the inhabitants
delivering up their arms to the selectmen. - The Governor
engages to protect the lives and property of such as choose
to stay ; those who choose to quit the town, to go where
they please, and the boats of the fleet to assist in convey-
ing such persons with their effects, as choose to go to any
part of the harbour. - The town was besieged by 20,000
men who it was expected would attack the fortifications.

"The wounded officers and soldiers were treated with
great humanity by the inhabitants of Charlestown, on
their return."

Extract of a letter from New-York, May 1.
"This morning a vessel arrived here from Boston, by
which we learn, that the loss on the side of the King's
troops is 67 killed and missing ; Lieutenant Knight of
the the 4th, and Lieutenant Hull of the 43d regiments,
are among the slain, - 120 wounded, 12 of which in dan-
ger, and 5 or 6 officers slightly ; the loss of the provinci-
als said to be considerable : They are now entrenched be-
fore Boston, to the amount of 12 or 15,000 ; all the in-
habitants in Boston are disarmed. - The Otter sloop
of war is arrived there ; it is said she brings the act of
parliament for restraining the trade of all the colonies,
except Nantucket, Nova-Scotia, St. Lawrence, New-
York, North-Carolina and Georgia.

"Last evening a detachment of the Connecticut troops
marched into town, and are to be followed by several more."

Last Wednesday arrived here the schooner Polly, Capt.
Buck, from North-Carolina, in whom came passenger,
William Hooper, Esq; one of the delegates for that pro-
vince in the continental congress to be holden in this city."

On Saturday last we had a meeting in this city of the
military associators ; when it was determined that each
ward should be formed into one or more companies ; the
officers to be chosen in the respective wards. Two troops
of light horse are now raising. Two companies of ex-
pert Rifle-men, and two companies of artillery are form-
ing. We have 6 pieces of brass artillery, and several
light iron ones. Our provincial arms, powder, &c. are
all secured. Three provincial magazines are forming.
In short, MARS has established his empire in this popu-
lous city ; and it is not doubted but we shall have in a
few weeks from this date, 4000 men, well equipped, for
our own defence or for the assistance of our neighbours.

Sunday last Captain Anthony arrived here in a short
passage from Rhode-Island, by whom we learn, that ge-
neral Gage had dispatched a frigate to England a few
hours after the defeat of his troops. That the British
officers and soldiers have done ample justice to the bra-
very and conduct of the Massachusetts militia - they say
that no troops ever behaved with more resolutio. - A
soldier who had been in the action, being congratulated
by a fellow soldier on his safe return to Boston, declared,
"that the milita had fought like bears, and that he
would as soon attempt to storm hell, as to fight against
them a second time."

We are likewise further informed that two brigades
consisting of 1800 men, commanded by Earl Piercy
were attacked and routed by only 500 of the militia.

By a gentleman who left Boston in the evening of the
19th ult. (the day of the engagement) we learn, that
the first stand made by the country was with only 200
men at Concord bridge, which the soldiers were endea-
vouring to pull up. The soldkers gave the first fire, and
killed 3 or 4. It was returned with vigour by the coun-
try, and the regulars began soon to retire. The country
people immediately lined the roads, which are secured
with stone walls, and their numbers hourly increasing,
they annoyed the regulars exceedingly, who halted but
two or three times, and then in open plains for a few

A considerable body of the provincials had formed an
ambuscade near Cambridge for the troops in their re-
turn ; but the bridge having been destroyed by the first
brigade in their march out, the troops took their rout
through Charlestown, and by that means avoided a total
overthrow. The number of the regulars which the two
brigades joined is said to have been at least 1800. It
does not appear that they were attacked by more than
600 provincials, till they got near to Charlestown, when
a very strong reinforcement from the inhabitants of Mar-
blehead and Salem fell in with them, and gave them two
severe fires ; this quickened their pace to Bunker's hill,
where they took refuge, formed in order, and remained
until reinforced by the third brigade sent over from Bos-
ton to secure their retreat, which was effected without
further loss.

Extract of a letter from HARTFORD, in Connecticut da-
ted Wednesday last, three o'clock.
"I send this by express to inform you that by ad-
vice this instant received, General Gage has ordered all
the vessels that may be found on the coast of New-Eng-
land, to be immediately secured for the King's use, pray
communicate this intelligence that all concerned may take
the necessary precaution."

To the FARMERS throughout this and the neighbouring

As the time for sheering of sheep is come, every one
who has any wool to spare, and wishes well to Ame-
rica, is earnestly solicited to bring it to the American
manufactory of woollens, cottons and linens, in Market
street near ninth-street, where they may be sure of ready
money and the best prices.

Extract of a letter from New-York, May 1.

"This morning a vessel arrived here from
Boston, by whom we have the following ac-
count of the unhappy affair which happened there.

"On Wednesday morning (the 19th ult.)
the grenadiers and light infantry, under the
command of Lieut. Col. Smith, of the 10th
regiment, were ordered to Concord to destroy
the magazine there, which they effected ; when
they arrived within three or four miles of that
place, a body of the provincials was drawn up
in the road ; Major Pitcairn, who command-
ed the advanced guard, desired they would
give room for the King's troops to pass ; they

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refused and kept their station. The Major
pressed on, the provincials observing their mo-
tions, quited the road, took post behind a hedge
or fence and fired on the detachment, killed
one man and wounded another, on which the
troops returned fire, and killed eight of
the provincials the alarm was given, and
the country was soon in arms, and came down
in great bodies ; this detachment was soon sup-
ported by the first brigade, commanded by
Lord Percy, which was ordered out on purpose;
the fire became general, and the skirmish con-
tinued till evening, when the King's troops
made good their retreat, but would have been
in a very disagreeable situation, had not the
second brigade come up; for they had expend-
ed all their ammunition but two rounds out of cart-

The party under Colonel Smith consisted of
800 men. At Lexington they met with a par-
ty of 30 or 40 men exercising ; Major Petcairn
who commanded the light infantry, ordered
them to disperse, and after some little dispute,
they were going off, when a party of the light
infantry shouted, ran up to them, and killed
eight on the spot, without any orders from
their commander. The accounts of the be-
ginning of this affair are various: The officers
say a gun was fired after the light infantry
shouted and run up to the minute-men ; but it
is not probable that a man would be so foolish
as to fire on a body of troops in an open plain.

When Lord Percy with his brigade joined
the party under Colonel Smith, it is said they
had only two rounds left, and must have sur-
rendered, or been cut off, if they had not join-
ed : The wounded of the army were treated
with great humanity on their return at Charles-

Extract of a letter from New-York. forward-
ed by the different committees.
"Fourteen regiments are ordered to New-
York ; that city to be the place of arms, and
fortified. All communication between that
city and the southern and eastern provinces to
be cut off, so as to prevent any junction. The
people are now united to a man, and concert-
ing means to prevent the above schemes being
executed ; but write they need immediate assist-
ance from the southward, ere the arrival of
the above troops. The are embodying them-

At a COUNCIL held at the Palace May 2, 1775.
Present his Excellency the Governor, Tho-
mas Nelson, Richard Corbin, William Byrd,
Ralph Wormeley junior, Esquires, John
Camm, Clerk, and John Page, Esquire.

The Governor was pleased to address himself
to the BOARD in the following manner :

COMMOTIONS and insurrections have
been suddenly excited among the people.
which threaten the very existence of his Majes-
ty's government in this colony ; and not other
cause is assigned for such dangerous measures
than that the gunpowder which had, some
time past, been brought from on board one of
the King's ships to which it belonged and was
deposited in the magazine of this city, hath
been removed, which, it is known, was done
by my order, to whom, under the constitutio-
nal right of the Crown which I represent, the
custody and disposal of all public stores of
arms and ammunition alone belong; and, whe-
ther I acted in this manner (as my indispensi-
ble duty required) to anticipate the malevolent
designs of the enemies of order and govern-
ment, or to prevent the attempts of any en-
terprising negroes ;(the powder being still as
ready and convenient for being distributed for
the defence of the country upon any emegen-
cy as it was before, which I have publicly en-
gaged to do) the expediency of the step I have
taken is equally manifest, and therefore it must
be evident that the same head-strong and de-
signing people, who have already but too suc-
cessfully employed their artifices in deluding
his Majesty's faithful subjects, and in seducing
them from their duty and allegiance, have
seized this entirely groundless subject of com
plaint, only to enflame afresh, and to precipi-
tate as many as possible of the unwary into
acts, which involving them in the same guilt
their corruptors think may bind them to the
same plans and schemes which are unquestion-
ably meditated in this colony, for subverting

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the present, and erecting a new form of go-

Incuded by an unaffected regard for the ge-
neral welfare of the people, whom I have had
the honour of governing, as well as actuated
by duty and zeal in the service of his Majesty,
I call upon you, his council in this colony,
for your advice upon this pressing occasion,
and I submit to you, whether a proclamation
should not issue conformable to what I have
now suggested, and, before our fellow subjects
abandon themselves totally to extremities, which
must inevitably draw down an accumulation of
every human misery upon their unhappy coun-
try, to warn them of their danger, to remind
them of the sacred oaths of allegiance which
they have taken, and to call up in their breasts
that loyalty and affection, which upon so ma-
ny occasions have been professed by them to their
King, their lawful sovereign ; and further, to
urge and exhort, in particular, those whose cri-
minal proceedings on this occasion have been,
and are still, so alarming, to return to their
duty, and a due obedience to the laws; and, in
general, all persons whatsoever to rely upon
the goodness and tenderness of our most gra-
cious sovereign to all his subjects, equally and
upon the wisdom of his councils, for a redress
of all their real grievances, which redress can
only be obtained by constitutional applications;
and, lastly, to enjoin all orders of people to
submit, as becomes good subjects, to the legal
authority of their government, in the protec-
tion of which their own happiness is most in-

The Council thereupon acquainted his Ex-
cellency, that as the matters he had been pleas-
ed to communicate to them were of the great-
est consequence, they desire time to deliberate
thereon till the next day.

At a meeting of the freeholders of Currituck county, held
at the court-house, on the 28th day of April 1775,
William Ferebee Esq; was chosen chairman, and
Jo. Slack was appointed clerk of the meeting.

THE deputies chosen to represent this county in the
convention lately held at Newbern, having acquant-
ed the meeting with the proceedings of that body, and
the reasons which induced them to withdraw from it ;
and having also laid before the meeting the journal of the
convention, which was read, and being duly considered,
the sense of the meeting was unanimous and declared by
the chairman as follows:

"Whereas from the journal of the convention it ap-
pears that no instructions have been given to the dele-
gates appointed to attend the congress, nor any plan pro-
posed for settling the unhappy dispute between Great-
Britain and her colonies and for preventing future dif-
ferences, instead whereof measures have been adopted
which are diametrically opposite to our sentiments, and
in which we can take no part consistently with our ideas
of justice ; we do therefore in the most public manner
testify our entire approbation of the conduct of our depu-
ties, Messrs. Macknight, Jarves, Perkins and Poyner, in
withdrawing from the convention.

And though we mean not to arraign the conduct of
others, yet concious of our freedom, we are determined
to maintain the liberty of thinking and judging for our-
selves in all matters relative to our own conduct; nor shall
that be regulated contrary to our sentiments, by any
authority less than the laws of our country. In conse-
quence whereof we declare to the world our opinion that
in all representative bodies, deliberating on the propriety
of measures to promote the welfare of their constituents,
it is the essential right of each individual, to express his
sentiments thereon with the utmost freedom ; and every
attempt to deprive him of that liberty, is a violation of
his right and a gross insult to his constituents; but when
such bodies carry the matter further, and attempt to
force an individual to subscribe a declaration contrary to
his conscience and avowed sentiments; when they endea-
vour to inflict severe and tyrannical punishments on ac-
count of his refusal, they manifest their intentions to be
inimical to the liberties of mankind ; they lose their autho-
rity, their decisions are no longer respected, and they rend-
der themselves odious to every humane and liberal mind.

For these reasons we detest and hold in the utmost con-
tempt, the censure and sentence of civil excommunication
passed on Mr. Thomas Macknight, by the late conven-
tion ; and this we are the better warranted to do, as there
is an evident want of candour in the state of the case pub-
lished by them, as they have given no instance of his disin-
genous or equivocal behaviour, as they accuse him
only with inimical intentions, and yet have condemned
him to a punishment, as severe as was in their power to
inflict, had he been actually guilty of the most atrocious
crime against the cause of American liberty ; but we know
Mr. Macknight, he hath resided amongst us and in our
neighbourhood for a series of years, he hath acquired our
confidence and esteem, by a behaviour not at all disinge-
nuos or equivocal; and his public conduct on all occa-
sions, and more particularly in the late unhappy disputes
between Great-Britain and her colonies, hath demonstra-
ted his affection to the cause of liberty. And in these
our sentiments of him we are further confirmed, by the
very action on account of which the convention hath con-
demned him; for the non-exportation agreement is a
measure, which we are sorry the congress hath recom-
mended, because in our opinion it is disgraceful to our creditors
abroad, and when ever it is carried into execution, will
be productive of ruin to thousands innocent of any crime
against America; it will render us absolutely incapable of
doing justice to our creditors in this country, and deprive

Column 2

us almost wholly, of every benefit arising from our labour
and industry.

We also declare our opinion, that no representative
body hath any right to claim obedience from free men
not represented in it, and therefore such a declaration, as
is contained in the fifth resolve of the late convention, is
a claim of and delegation of power, which the convention
was not possessed of, except in behalf of the real constitu-
ents of the members composing that body, and conse-
quently neither the acts of the convention, nor those to
be done by the delegates appointed to attend the con-
gress, are obligatory in honour upon any inhabitant of
this province, who refused or neglected to take any share
in the election of the deputies to the convention, and
much less upon those whose deputies withdrew from the
convention, in consequence of measures being adopted
contrary to their sentiments and instructions; and the
world will think this usurpation of power more flagrantly
daring and unreasonable, when the journal of this con-
vention shows, that no less than nine counties and two
towns within the province, were unrepresented in it from
the beginning to the end of its sessions. For these rea-
sons we declare that we do not consider the acts of the
convention, nor those to be done by the delegates, in
the continental congress obligatory in honour upon us.
Notwithstanding which, as far as they shall be reasonable,
just, and in our opinion, not inconsistent with the real
interest of American and Great-Britain, we shall pay them
that respect and obedience, which is justly due to the opi-
nions and advice of so respectable a body as the conten-
tal congress.

The thanks of the meeting being then delivered to the
deputies, by the chairman, these gentlemen expressed
their happiness in finding their conduct had given so
much satisfaction to the freeholders, who directed the
above account to be published in the Gazettes of this and
the neighbouring colonies.
JO. SLACK, Clerk.

Pasquotank, 29th April, 1775.
WHEREAS, we the committee of observation for
the county of Pasquotank, hae seen in the jour-
nal of the convention lately held at Newbern, a most
severe censure on Mr. Thomas Macknight, founded on
his refusing "to sign with the other members of this con-
vention the association approved of by the continental
congress:" But on examining the journals of this conven-
tion we do not find that the association was signed by the
other members as insinuated, and whereas Mr. Joseph
Jones a member of the convention who concurred in pas-
sing the censure on Mr. Macknight, confessed to us, at our
last meeting, on the 19th of April, that he heard Mr.
Macknight offer in the convention to subscribe the asso-
ciation contained in a book; and as not instance of any
disingenuous or equivocal fact or crime appears in the jour-
nals specified against Mr. Macknight, and whereas we
have been fully informed of the reasons assigned by him
for refusing to sign with the other members of the con-
vention the resolve actually subscribed by them, "highly
approving and promising to recommend the continental
association;" and as these reasons are perfectly satisfactory
to us and serve to confirm the good opinion which we
have hitherto entertained of him, on account of his beha-
viour and public spirit, during a long residence amongst
us. We therefore in discharge of our duty as a com-
mittee of observation, bound in honour to protect the in-
nocent from unmerited reproach, have ordered this to be
published and do declare that, in our opinion, Mr. Mack-
night hath been used severely by the convention, and
therefore we think ourselves in duty bound to pay every
regard to him as a man of honour and a lover of his coun-
try; and recommend our expample in this respect to every
other person, and doubt not but it will be followed by all
true friends to American liberty.
True Copy.
JOHN LOWRY, Chairman.

NORFOLK, MAY 11, 1775.
The merchants of London, we hear, are greatly dissa-
tisfied with the reception their petition met with from
the house of commons, and have drawn largely on the
bank, with an intention probably, to embarrass the mi-

A gentleman arrive from London informs that letters
were shewn him from some persons in this town, contain-
ing most exaggerated and false accounts of the conduct of
the people here, alledging that the committees seize the
property of the merchants, dispose of them at pleasure,
and send the proceeds to the REBELS at Boston, and
many more aspersions of the like nature.

Captain Oliffe, arrived here from London, fell down
the river with the transports destined for America. He
brought a few papers, but some person pretending to be-
long to the printing-office, went on board and took them

By letters received we learn, that a bill of attainder
against several gentlemen on this continent, was to pass
immediately after the sailing of the forces; that the troops
were to land at New-York, under the command of five e-
neral officers; and that a considerable number of chests
of arms &c. were to come in with them.

Last Tuesday evening arrived dispatches from Connecti-
cut, forwarded by the intermediate committees, with in-
formation that General Gage has given orders that all ves-
sels found on the coast of New England be immediately
seized for the King's use.

At a meeting of the committee of the county of Norfolk,
at the court-house of said county, on Thursday the
4th May, 1775.
THE resolves of the convention held at Rich-
mond on the 20th March last, were read and unani-
mously approved.
RESOLVED, that the thanks of this committee be
presentd to Thomas Newton, Junior and James
Holt, Esquires, our worthy delegates, for their faithful
discharge of the important trust reposed in them.

Having heretofore placed the highest degree of confi-
dence in the good intentions of our chief magistrate to-
wards his Majesty's most loyal and faithful subjects, the
good people of this dominion, over whom he presides,
which we can safely affirm had gained him their universal
esteem and respect, with equal surprize and sorrow, we
have seen in our public Gazettes, extracts of a letter said

Column 3

to be wrote by our said chief magistrate, on the 14th [of Dec-]
cember last to the Earl of Dartmouth, one of his Maj[e-]
sty's principal secretaries of state, most grossly mismisrepr[e-]
senting all the good people of this colony, particula[ly]
the magistrates, and those whom the people have elected
as committees to be the guardians of their inestimable
rights and liberties; and as his Excellency has not thought
proper to disavow being the author of such letter, we must
take it for granted that the extract published is a faithful
copy; we therefore think it our indispensable duty in
justice to our own reptutations and that of our constitu-
ents, who have honoured us with such marks of their con-
fidence and esteem, to refute so unjust and unmerited, so
defamatory and atrocious a charge. First then we declare,
that we know of no instance wherein any committee in
this or the neighbouring counties has assumed an autho-
rity to inspect the books or any other secrets of the trade
of merchants; we admit to have known some instances,
where some merchants being suspected of a breach of the
association, have voluntarily offered some private letters
and books to be inspected, in order to acquit themselves
of such charge.

He next says, we stigmatize those we discover to have
transgressed what we hardly call the laws of the congress,
which stigmatizing to use the words in the said extract,
"is no other than inviting the vengeance of an outrage-
"ous and lawless mob, to be exercised on the unhappy
"victims." Several in this borough and county have
been held up for public censure for breaches of the asso-
ciation ; but no vengeance of any mob or individual has
been inflicted on them, not even that fashionable one
lately introduced by the troops under the command of
General Gage, and we could call upon sundry persons
here who were thus stigmatized to justify this assertion.

We with his Excellency had deign'd to name the coun-
ty, where the committee had proceeded so fart as to swear
the men of their independant company to execute all or-
ders which they should give them, as it is a piece of in-
formation entirely new to us, as well as that of every
other county forming an indepen[da]nt company for the
avowed purpose, as he says, of protecting their commit-
tees, and to be employed against government, if occasion
require. We hope all the dark plots of our most secret
or declared enemies will prove Ineffectual in bringing mat-
ters to that most unhappy issue; and we h[a]ve so high an
opinion of the virtue of our countrymen, that we look up-
on the solemnity of an oath altogether unnecessary to
stimulate them to stand forth firm and intrepid upon all
just occasions, in support of their civil and religious rights
and liberties. Whilst we were thus fondly flattering our-
selves that we had in his Excellency a most powerful ad-
vocate in order to accomodate the unhappy disputes
subsisting between Great-Britain and her Colonies, we
leave the world to judge what pognant sorrow we must
feel on the discovery that it was a vain delusion, and that
instead of those offices we expected, he was all the time
widening the breach by misrepresenting so greatly our
conduct to those in power ; and we now discover from his
Excellency's said letter, that his gentle and lenient con-
duct, which we were too ready to attribute to the regard
he professed, and which we flattered ourselves he had for
his government, proceeded only from his fears of the dis-
grace of a disappointmen, and we find as soon as it was
known that letter would be made public, the mask was
thrown off, and the first step taken to open the eyes of the
people was, the seizing of the gunpowder in the public
magazine, in the most secret manner ; how far such a
manoeuvre is justifiable is not our intention at present to
enquire into, that being a point on which the public will
undoubtedly undertake to judge for themselves, but we
cannot help giving it as our opinion, that his Excellency's
answer to the address of the respectable corporaton of the
city of WIlliamsburg on that occasion, is highly disrespect-
ful and evasive. And now fellow-countrymen, let us by
our steady perseverance in virtue and unanimity convince
his Excellency, when he says, that every step we take
must inevitably defeat its own purpose, that he (to use
the phrase of our late truly worthy and noble Governor)
has not augur'd right.

We thought ourselves under the indispensable necessity
of making the foregoing strictures on the above-mention-
ed letter, lest our silence might be construed by our coun-
trymen or others, into a tacit confession of our guilt :
And now we submit to the public how far his Excellency
merits the continuance of that unlimited confidence here-
tofore placed in him ; the tribute of our respect we are
still willing to pay him as our chief magistrate and the re-
presentative of our most gracious Sovereign, to whom we
shall always pay all due obedience.

Ordered that the clerk send a copy of these proceedings
to Messrs. Dixon and Hunter, and Mr. John Hunter
Holt, to be published ; and they are desired to publish them
in their next Gazettes.

NORFOLK May 11, 1775
THE usual time of the meeting of the merchants of
this colony having been postponed and rendered very
uncertain, to the great detriment and inconvenience of
trade ; - The merchants in this town and of Portsmouth
at a meeting duly called taking the same into considerati-
on, determined, by a considerable majority, to propose
to the gentlemen with whom they have business in the
different parts of the country, to hold a meeting at this
place on the first day of June next, which they now beg
leave to do by this public notice. If the gentlemen to
whom this proposition is made, should object either to the
time or place, they will acquiesce with them, upon time-
ly notice being given ; - or if it shall be anticipated by an
earlier meeting at Williamsburg, they will not fail in a
due attendance there.
Signed in behalf of the meeting,

ALL persons interested in the estate of
George Blisard (a Virginian) lately drowned on
his passge from Calais, are desired to apply to Charles
Perry at New-York.

NORFOLK, MAY 11, 1775.
A very likely NEGRO LAD, a complete barber and
hair-dresser, and has been used to waiting on a gen-
tleman. For terms apply to the Printer. 49-51.

Page 4
Column 1

[Th]e following HINTS are submitted to the Pub-
lic, by a person who has had a good deal of
experience in the management of FLAX.

IN the first place, a deep soil is properest for
Flax-seed, if it be a little inclined to clay,
it is nothing the worse ; it should have two or
three ploughings, but as the cultivation of po-
tatoes is yearly much practised, the ground
which is well dunged for the potatoes will sel-
dom fail of producting a good crop of flax
next season ; it should be twice ploughed, and
all the weeds carefully raked off ; let it be har-
rowed before the seed is sowed, and if the
ground be rich, sow at least two bushels per
acre; harrow it exceeding well after sowing,
and if the soil be light, roll it with a wooden
roller. Farmers are in general too late in sow-
ing their seed, for before the the flax is ripe
the heat and drought are so great, that flax is
very subject to be fired. The seed has hither-
to been too much the object of attention, which
occasions them to let the flax become too ripe
before pulling. But the greatest error they
run into is, not water-rotting the flax, instead
whereof they expose it too much to the weather,
in order to get it fit for threshing out the feed;
for by laying it on the grass, and receiving the
night dews, and afterwards the hot sun, it dis-
charges too much of the oils, which renders
the flax hard and stubborn. They would do
well to get what is called a rippeling comb (it
is a little larger than a coarse hemp-heckle) and
immediately after the flax is pulled up, make it up
in small handfuls, and pull the top of the
flax through it, and it will take off the seed;
let the seed be well dried in the sun, and then
take it into the barn and thresh it. The flax,
immediately after rippeling, should be bound
up in small beets, and have a pond prepared,
where a small supply of water should constant-
ly run in ; the softer the water the better ; but
if the water is hard, get a parcel of Brackin
(they are sometimes called fearns) and lay a
quantity in the bottom of the pond ; lay the
flax slant-ways, with the roots at the bottom,
as the top end requires a longer time to rot,
and the water is warmer at the top of the pond
than at the bottom, which of course will rot
sooner ; there can be no fixed time allowed for
its continuing in the pond, as the warmth or
coldness of the weather, and hardness or soft-
ness of the water, will make a material
odds in the time of the flax being fully rotted.
After it has remained some time, examine it
frequently, and take a little out, and after it
is dried, if the reed comes easily from the
boon by rubbing, it is then time to take it out ;
then lay it on the bank of the pond till it is well
drained, afterwards slide the band neart the top,
and set it upon the end, with the roots spread
out, in order that the air may pass through it,
as well as to prevent its falling down ; after it
is perfectly dry, take it in. But as break-
ing and swingling it by manual labour is very
expensive, and besides not done to perfection,
I would earnestly recommend the erecting of
flax-mills, in different parts of the conntry ;
they will not take more water than fulling-
mills.       I.H.

BY the purchase of Mr. Brown's share
in the Printing-Office established in
this borough, and by the dissolution of
the late concern of William Duncan and
Co. the subscriber has become a principal
proprietor and sole manager of the press,
and humbly solicits the favor of the pub-
lic towards an undertaking which if pro-
perly conducted may prove of general
advantage. Many have been the difficul-
ties with which the business of this press
has hitherto been obstructed : The sub-
scriber enters upon the office encumbered
with the bad effects of those difficulties,
which, however, he will make it his study
to remove, and flatters himself with the
prospect of success. - He need not men-

Column 2

tion the peculiar advantages his situation
affords for an undertaking of this nature ;
in the first trading town in the colony,
where the earliest intelligence can be pro-
cured from abroad, and a constant com-
munication maintained, by means of the
rivers, with all parts of this well watered
dominion, so that his most distant subscri-
bers, he trusts, will never have cause to
complain of any remissness in forwarding
their papers.

By a steady attention to variety and
novelty he hopes to furnish amusement to
his readers, while a careful collection of
the useful and instructive adds profit to
their pleasure."

An impartial detail of public transacti-
ons, with such compositions as may be con-
ducive to the welfare of his country, or
throw any light on the important subjects
that engross the attention of all ranks of
people in these unhappy times, shall meet
a ready publication. - Advertisements,
articles of news, essays, and whatever else
may be proper for a weekly paper will be
thankfully received and duly inserted.

The greatest care shall be taken to distri-
bute the papers in the speediest method,
and to give every satisfaction to the pub-
lic. - The subscriber cannot conclude
without again requesting the encourage-
ment of a colony, always desirous to pro-
mote every undertaking of general utility.
With great respect, the publisher
subscribes himself, the public's
devoted and most obedient servant,


NORFOLK, April 27, 1775.
In all its branches carried on at the
Where may be had all sorts of

NORFOLK, APRIL 27, 1775.
At Mr. REYNOLDS'S near the corner of Church-Street,
BEGS leave to acquaint the Ladies
who may be pleased to favor him with their com-
mands, that they may depend on being serve'd in the best
manner, with care and diligence, and at the most reason-
able rates.

WILL stand this season at Mr.
PHRIPP's on Mondays, and Fridays at
Kemp's landing, and the rest of his time at the subscri-
ber's on the bay side. His pedigree and qualities are too
well known to require a description. He will cover -at
the same rates as last year.
47-49.         JOHN THOROWGOOD.

The Imported HORSE, Young CARVER,
FOUR years Old this Summer, stands at the Subscribers
at the Great Bridge ; Covers Mares, at 30 Shillings
the Leap, or three Pounds the Season. - Good Pastu-
rages, (but none warranted to return if Stolen or Strayed.)

CARVER, was got by old CARVER, a Horse the
property of his Majesty, by the famous York-Shire Lake
Mare, Lady-Legs. For further Particulars,th, - See the
Horse.           CHARLES MAYLE.
March 8th, 1775.           (tf)           40

NORFOLK, April 11, 1775.
FOR SALE, for CASH only :
BETWEEN four and five ton British
made Cordage, and a quantity of Sail-cloth. -
for terms apply to         WILLIAM CHISHOLM.
(3)         45

Column 3

TO be sold on Monday the first day of
May next, at public Vendue at Edenton, the
perishable estate of John Hodgson, Esq. deceased ; constit-
ing of a quantity of Jamaica and Windward island Rum,
and other valuable articles. - Twelve months credit
will be allowed ...
to the commodities, and money insisted on in discharge
of all such contracts.
(3) 46 W. FERGUSON, Adminst.

North-Carolina, Currituck County, April 3, 1775.
A VALUABLE tract of Land, near
Currituck Court-house, held for one hundred
acres (but appears to be more) with one hundred and
eight bearing apple trees, and three hundred peach trees, a-
bout half a mile from the water or sound. - For
particulars apply to the Sheriff,

NORFOLK, March 23, 1775.
ONE share of the Thistle Distillery, be-
longing to the estate of John Gilchrist,
deceased ; and another share belonging to the
late copartnary of Campbell and Gilchrist. -
For terms apply to the subscriber. If they are
not disposed of before the next meeting of the
merchants at Williamsburg, they will then be
set up at public sale before the Raleigh tavern.
Credit will be given the Purchaser, giving
bond with security, to bear interest from the

FALMOUTH, April 5, 1775.
RUN away from the sloop Susannah,
Capt. John Dow, about the 5th ultimo, a negro
man named NED, about 40 years of age, 5 feet ten inches
high, much pitted with the small-pox, has a remarkable
sore on his right leg, is fond of liquour, and when intoxi-
cated has an impediment in his speech, is very deceitful,
and will no doubt endeavour to pass for a free man. Had
on when he went away, a gray kersey short coat, almost
new, with metal buttons, and breeches of the same cloth,
a spotted cotton jacket, a pair of yarn hose, and an old
fine hat. - Any person, delivering said negro to
receive a reward of FIVE POUNDS if apprehended in
this colony, and TEN POUNDS if in any other. -
I forewarn all masters of vessels and others, from har-
bouring, employing, or carrying off said negro, at their
(3)       46           GEORGE HAMILTON

NORFOLK, April 4, 1775.
WE the subscribers intend to leave
the Colony soon.
                COLIN CAMPBELL,
(tf)   44   DURRANT LONG.

NORFOLK, April 5, 1775.
THOSE who have any demands against
the estate of Mr. Robert Clark, are
desired to bring them in properly proved, to
(6)   44

NORFOLK, MAY 4, 1775
THE partnership of HARMANSON and
HARVEY being dissolved, all person indebted to
said partnership are requested to be speedy in payment,
and those that have any accounts against the partnership
are desired to bring them in to

Who has for sale ,Jamaica Spirits, Madeira Wine of
the New-York Quality, Coffee, Chocolate, Bar Iron, and
Wheat Fans, also, a pair of Lead Pumps for a Vessel.

NORFOLK, May 1, 1775.
THE ship Greenwood, Mackey Reed
master, will sail in a fortnight, can take in (be-
sides what is engag'd) about 120 hogsheads or 600 barrels,
on liberty of consignment ; she has also excellent accom-
modations for passengers. - For terms apply to

NORFOLK: Printed by JOHN H. HOLT & Co. at the Printing-Office near the Market-House; where Subscriptions for
this Paper are taken in at 12s. 6d. per ANNUM: Advertisements (of a moderate Length) inserted at 3s. the first Week and
2s. each Week after. - All Kinds of Printing-Work executed in the neateast Manner, with Care and Expedition ; and
BOOKS bound in a neat Manner, on the most reasonable Terms.




John H. Holt & Co., publisher., “The Virginia Gazette, or, The Norfolk Intelligencer. May 11, 1775,” Special Collections, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, accessed February 5, 2023,

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