The Virginia Gazette, no. 256, December 5, 1755

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The Virginia Gazette, no. 256, December 5, 1755



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With the freshest ADVICES,

Four Letters have been lately published, written by the
Reverend, Mr.
George Whitefieldfrom Lisbon, to an English friend,which we are desired to insert,
for the Entertainment of our Readers. Mr.
field introduces them with the following Preface;

"------ If an infinitely condescending God shall vouchsafe to bless the Pe-
rusal in them to excite any, either at Home or Abroad, a more
"obediental and zealous Thankfulness for the Civil and Religious Liberies
"we enjoy; or make them any Way instrumental in stirring up my fellow
"Prodestants, and dear Countrymen to exert themselves more vigorously at
"this critical Juncture against those who, if Conquerors, would quickly
"rob us of those invaluable Blessings, I shall not repent that I have con-
"sented to the Publication of them."


Lisbon, March 1754.
My dear Friend,
By this time I suppose you have heard of my being at Lisbon,
and are wondering what led me thither, especially since my
last informed you of my intention of going to Georgia by Way
of New-York. This was really my design at the Time of
my Writing ; but being afterward called by Providence to
take with me several Orphan Children, I thought it most adviseable to go
and settle them, and my other domestic Affairs at the Orphan-House first ;
that I might visit the Northern Parts of America with more Ease and Free-
dom in my own Mind.--------It happened that the Success, Capt. Thomson
bound for Port Royal, South Carolina, (which is not very far from Georgia)
was then almost ready to sail. ----------I sent for the Owner, and finding that
the ship was to touch at Lisbon to unload some Wheat, it occasioned a
little Demurr ; but upon second Thoughts, believing that it might be Ser-
viceable to me, as a Preacher and Prodestant, to see something of the Su-
perstitions of the Church of RomeI took my Passage and embarked in the Success,
on the 7th of March. On the 14th we reached Cape
Finnister.------On the 15th came in sight of the Burlings;and on the 16th
anchored safe before Bellem, about four miles from Lisbon City, the Me-
tropolis of Portugal.------------ As I knew Nobody there, and had formed
but an Indifferent Idea of the Inhabitants, from the Account that had been
given me of them, I purposed within myself to keep on Board, and go
ashore only now and then in the Day-time.--------- But Providence order-
ed it so, that a Gentleman of the Factory, who had heard me himself, and
whose Brother had been awakened under my Ministry some Years ago,
immediately, upon hearing of my Arrival, sent me an Offer of his House
during my Stay.------ I thankfully accepted it; and special Leave being
procured for my going ashore, I was carried in a Chaise and Pair from
Bellemto Lisbon.------- A New Scene, both in respect to the Situation of the
Place, the Fashion of the Buildings, and the Dress of the Inhabitants pre-
sented itself all the Way.----- But what engaged my Attention most, was
the Frequency of Crucifixes and the little Images of the Virgin Mary,and
other real or reputed Saints, which were placed almost in every Street, or
fixed against the Walls of the Houses almost at every Turning, with
Lamps hanging before them.----- To these I observed the People
bow as they passed along; and near some of them stood several
little Companies, singing with great Earnestness.---------- This seemed
to me very odd, and gave me an Idea of what further ecclesiastical Curio-
sities would probably fall in my Way, if I should be detained any Time
here.----- These Expectations were quickly raised ;--------- For, not long
after my Arrival at my new Lodgings, (where I was received and enter-
tained with great Gentility, Hospitality and Friendliness) upon looking out
of the Window, I saw a company of Priests and Friars bearing lighted wax
tapers, and attended by various Sorts of People, some of which had Bags
and Baskets of Victuals in their Hands, and others carried Provisions on
their Shoulders upon Sticks betwen two. After these followed a mixed
Multitude, singing with a very audible Noice, and addressing the the Virgin
Mary in their usual Strain, "Ora Pro noblis." In this Manner they pro
ceeded to the Prison, where all was deposited for the Use of the poor Per-
sons contained therein.----- But a far more pompous Procession of the like
Nature (as a Stander-by informed me) passed by a few Days after.----- In
this there were near three hundred Franciscan Friars, many of which (be-
sides Porters hired for that Purpose) were loaded with a Variety of Food;
and those who bore no Burden carried either Ladles or Spoons in their
Hands.----- Sights of this Nature being quite a Novelty to me, I was fond
of attending as many of them as I could. Two Things concurred to make
them more frequent at this Juncture via the Season of Lent, and an ex-
cessive Drought, which threatened the total Destruction of the Fruits of the
Earth.-----For the averting so a great a Judgement, and for the imploring the
much longed-for Blessing of Rain, daily Processions had been made from
one Convent or another for considerable Time.---- One of these I saw.
It was looked upon as a pretty grand one, being made up of the Carmelite
Friars, the Parish Priests, and a great Number of what they call Brothers of
the order, who walked two by two in divers Habits, holding a long and

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very large lighted Wax Taper in their right Hands.----Admist these wa
carried upon eight or ten Men's Shoulders, a tall image of the Virgin Mary
in a Kind of Men's Attire ; for I think she had a very fine white Wig on
her Head, (a Dress she often appears in) and was very much adorned with
Jewels and glittering stones.------At some Distance from the Lady, under
a Canopy of State, and supported likewise by six or eight Persons came a
Priest, holding in his Hand some noted Relick.----After him followed se-
veral Thousands of People, joining with the Friars in singing, Eandem
cantilenam, "Ora pro noblis,"
all the Way.-------Still Rain was denied, and
and still Processions were continued.------At length the Clouds began to gather,
and the Mercury in the Barometer fell very much.-----Then was brought
out a wooden Image, which they say never failed.-----It was the Figure of
our blessed Lord, clothed with Purple Robes, and crown'd with Thorns.
I think they call him the Lord of the Passion.-----Upon his Shoulders he
bore a large cross, under the Weight of which he was represented as
stooping till his Body bent almost double.----He was brought from the
Le Grais Convent in very great Pomp, and placed in a large Cathedral
Church ----Being on Board at the Time, I lost Sight ; but the subse-
quent Evening I beheld the Seigneur fixed on an Eminence in a larve Cathe-
dral Church, near the Alter, surrounded with Wax-Tapers of a prodigious
Size.----He was attended by many Noblemen, and Thousands of Spec-
tators of all Ranks and Stations, who crowded from every Quarter, and,
in their Turns, were admitted by the Guards to come within the Rails and
perform their Devotions.-----This they expressed by kneeling, and kis-
sing the Seigneur's Heel, by putting their left and right Eye to it, and then
touching it with their Beads, which a Gentleman in waiting received from
them and returned again.-----This Scene was repeated three Days
successively : and during all this Time the Church and Space before it was
so thronged with Carraiges and People, that there was scarce any passing.
-----The Music on this Occasion was extremely soft, and the Church was
illuminated in a very striking Manner.-----The third Day in the Forenoon
it rained, and soon after the Seigneur was conducted home in as great Splen-
dour, and much greater Rejoicing than when he was brought forth.-----
As my Situation was very commodious I saw the whole ; and afterwards
went and heard Part of the Sermon, which was delivered before him in the
Church to which the Seigneur belonged.-----The Preacher was full of
Action ; and in some Part of his Discourse, (as one who understood Por-
informed me)pointing to the Image he said, "Now he is at Rest.
-----He went out in Justice, but is returned in Mercy."-----And towards
the Conclusion he called upon the People to join with him in an extempore
Prayer. This they did with great Fervency, which was expressed not only
by repeating it aloud, but by beating their Breasts, and clapping their Cheeks
and weeping heartily.----To complete the Solemnity, immediately after
the delivery of the Briefing, all on a Sudden, from the Place near which
the Image stood, there was heard a most soft and soothing Symphony of
Music, which being ended the Assembly broke up, and I retired to my
Lodgings, not a little affected to see so many Thousands led away from the
Simplicity of the Gospel, but such a mixture of Artiface and blind Supersti-
ion, of which indeed I could have formed no Idea, had I not been an Eye-

Witness of it myself.-------This concern still encreased by what I
heard from some of my Fellow Passengers, who informed me that about
Eleven one Night, after I came on Board, they not only heard a Fryar
preaching most fervently before the Seigneur, but also saw several Compa-
nies of Penitents brought in, lashing and whipping themselves fervently.----
How unlike this to those that cut themselves with Knives and Lancets
and cried out from Morning til Night,"O Baal hear us"------Methinks
I hear you say, and had I been present, I should have wished for the Spi-
rit of an Elijiah to------Hush, My Friend----I am content to guess at the
rest til we meet.----In the mean while let us comfort ourselves with this
Thought that there is a season approaching, when the Lord God of Elijiah
will himself come, and destroy this and every other species of Antichrist
By the Breath of his Mouth, and the Brightness of his Appearing, even by
the all-conquering Manifestations of his eternal Spirit.----Whether as men
Christians and Protestants, we have not more and more Reason to pray
Night and Day for the hastening on that glorious and long wished for Pe-
riod, you will be better able to judge, when I send you, (as I purpose to
do, if I have Time) a further account of a Lent Procession or two, of
which I was also a Spectator.------At present, I can only beg a continual
Remembrance at a Throne of Grace, as being, my dear Friend, Yours Etc.


Lisbon, March1754.

My dear Friend
THO' some other Business demands my Attention, yet I must
get to the Promise made you of a further Account of the
Lisbon. Some of those already mentioned were extraordinar
thier great Drought ; but that which is to be the Subject
ter was an annual one ; it being always customary at
Procession or another every Friday in Lent------And
who stood near me, was so good as to be my Interpr
as it passed along.----I say Dumb Shrew----Fo
Chiefly made up of waxen and wooden Images, and

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ders through the Streets, intending to represent the Life and Death of St.
Francis, the Founder of one of their religious Orders.----They were brought
out from the Franciscan Convent, and were preceeded by three Persons in
Scarlett Habits with Baskets in their Hands, in which they received the
Alms of the Spectators, for the Benefit of the poor Prisoners.----After
these, came two little Boys in Party color'd Cloaths, with Wings fixed on
their Shoulders, in imitation of little Angels.-----Then appeared the
Figure of St. Francis, very gay and Beau-like, as he used to be before his
Conversion.----In the next he was introduced under Conviction, and con-
sequently stript of his Finery.-----------Soon after this was exhibited
an Image of our Blessed Lord himself, in a Purple Gown, with long black
Hair, with St. Francis lying before him to receive his immediate Orders.----
Then came the Virgin Mother, (borreseo referens) with Christ her Son at
her left Hand, and St. Francis making his Obeysance to Both.------Here
if I remember aright, he made his first Appearance in a Friar's Habit with
his Hair cut short, but not as yet shaved in the Crown of his Head.----
After a little Space followed a mitred Cardinal gaudily attired, and before
him lay St. Francis almost prostrate, in Order to be confirmed in his Of-
fice.----Soon after this he appears quite metamorphosed into a Monk, his
Crown shorn, his Habit black, and his loins girt with knotted Cord.----
Here he prays to our Savior hanging on a Cross, that the Marks of the
Wounds in his Hands, Feet and Side, might be impressed on the same Parts
of his Body.------The Prayer is granted ; Blood comes from the Hands,
Feet and Sides ; and the Saint with great Devotion receive the Impressions.
-----This was represented by red waxen Strings, reaching from those Parts
of the Image to the corresponding Parts of St. Francis's Body.----------
Upon this he begins to do Wonders ; and therefore in a little While he was
carried along, holding up a House which was just falling.---------This
Miracle they say was performed (if my Information be true) at Madrid, but
the Particulars of its History I have forgotten. ----At length the Father
dies, and is brought forth lying in the Grave.---------But lo ! the Briars
and nettles under which he lay, are turned into fine and fragrant Flowers.
After this he is born along upon a Bier covered with a Silver Pall, and
four Friars lamenting over him.----He then appears for the last Time, but
with an Increase of Power ; for he was represented as drawing tormented
People out of Purgatory with his knotted Cord, which you may well
imagine, the poor Souls catched at, and took Hold of very eagerly.----
At length came a gorgeous Friar under a splendid Canopy, bearing in his
Hand a Piece of the Holy Cross. After him followed two more little
winged Boys, and the a long Train of fat and well-favored Franciscans
with their CalceisFenestratis, as Erasmus calls them ; and so the Procession
ended. Methinks you say it is full Time.-----And so say I----
For as the Sight itself disgusted me, so I am persuaded the bare Narration
of it, though ever so short, cannot be very pleasant to you, who I know ab-
hor every Thing that favors Superstition and Idolatry. We will there-
fore take our Leave of St. Francis whose Procession was in the Day-Time:
but I must tell you it is only to inform you of another of a much more aw-
ful and shocking Nature, which I saw afterwards by Night. It was about
Ten O'Clock, when being in deep conversation with my kind
Host, in came an Englishman and told me in all Haste he has seen a Train
on nearlt two hundred Pentitents passing along, and that in all Probability I
might be gratified with the same Sight, if I hastened to a Place whither he
would conduct me. I very readily obey'd the Summons, and as Curiosity
quickened my Pace, we soon came up with some of these poor Creatures
who were making a Halt, and kneeling in the Street, whilst a Friar
from a high Cross with and image of our Lord crucified in his Hand, was
preaching to them, and the Populace, with great Vehemence. Sermon
being ended, the Pentitents, who had already been preached to, went for-
wards, and several Companies followed after with their respective preaching
Friars at theor Head bearing Crucifixes, These they pointed to and bran-
dished frequently, and the Hearers as frequestly beat their Breasts and
clapped their Cheeks. At proper Pauses they flopp'dand prayed ; and one
of them, more zealous than the rest, before the the King's Palace, sounded
out the Word Penitentia through a speaking Trumpet. The Pentitents them-
selves were clothed and covered all over with white Linen Vestments,
only holes were made foe their Eyes to peep out at. All were barefooted
and all had long very heavy Chains fastened to their Ancles, which when
dragged along the street, made a dismal Rattling : But tho' alike in Dress
yet in other Respects there was a great Variety amongst them. For some
carried great Stones on their Backs, and others dead Men's Bones and
Sculls in their Hands. Some bore large and seemingly very heavy Crosses
upon their shoulders, whilst others had their arms extended quite wide
or carried a Bow fullof Swords, with the Points downwards. Most of
them whipped and lashed themselves, some with Cords, and others with
flat Bitts of Iron. It being a Moon-shine Night, I could see them quite
well ; and indeed some of them struck so hard that I perceived that their
Backs (left bare on Purpose to be slash'd) were quite red, and swoln very
very much by the Violence and Repetition of the Blows. Had my dear Friend
been there, he would have joined me in saying the whole Scene
was horrible. So horrible, that being it was to be continued till Morning.
I was glad to return from whence I came about Midnight. Had you been
with me, I know you would have joined me in praising and grateful-
ly adoring the Lord of all Lords, not only for the great Wonder of the Re-
formation but also for the glorious Deliverance wrought out for us, in stopping
of our late unnatural Rebellion. O with what mighty Spirit
and Power from on high, must Luther, Calvin, Melacthon,Zuigluis, and
those glorious Reformers, be necessarily endued with, who dared first open-
ly to oppose and stem such a Torrent of Superstition and spiritual Tyranny !
And what Gratitude we owe to Him, who under God was instrumental in
saving us from the Return of such spiritual Slavery, and such blind Obe-
dience to a papal Power ! To have had a Cardinal for our King.----A Car-
dinal if not born, yet from his Infancy, nursed up at Rome.-----A Cardinal,
Sons is advanced to the same ecclesiastical Dignity, and both
Obligations to support the Interests of that Church, whose
as political State Principles,they have suck'd in and
eir Infancy.---- But, blessed be GOD, whose Snare is

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The great Advantages of the Colonies to Great Britain. (From a late English

Our M----s, like private Men, begin to see, that the surest Way of
livingin Peace, is to preserve the Character of being ready upon any
just Provocation, to hazard the Fate of a Combat. Indeed, it is the
true Method of Reparation and Security by fair Means, to show we are
resolved to have it by foul, if it cannot be other wise obtained. The Pre-
tentions our Neighbors have lately set up, so inconsistent with Justice
and the Laws of Nations, declare that once their ambitious Views,
and a Notion they seem to entertain that coming to a Declara-
tion of War, we will submit to any Terms ; but I am in Hopes, that
our Success in America, as well as the late Skirmish in Newfoundland,
will check their Ambition, and show the Vanity of their Notions, In
National Affairs as well as in private Life, even the Pandilio's of
of Honor are to be regarded, when we have to do with those, who
stand so much upon the Dignity of their Grand Monarch.

How much it is in the Interest of this Nation to keep a strict Watch on
all their Motions, and to prevent every least Encroachment upon our
Colonies, I need not say ; for to the wonderful Growth of these, we owe
the Strength and Populousness of this Island. To a Circulation of our
Commerce indeed it is owing that our Lands are so much more valuable,
and our intrinsic Wealth to much encreased, since the Acquisition of the
American Plantations ; which,however paradoxical it may appear, has
been demonstrated by some of our best Writers, and confirmed by a long
Experience. The natural Produce and Manufactures of every Country
have a certain limited Extent, which, without a Change of Circumstan-
ces, they cannot exceed, and when these are improved to a certain Pitch,
the Carreer of domestic Industry must cease, unless new Markets are opened.
In this Light will the American Colonies always appear one of the
brightest Jewels in the British Crown ; since the Inhabitantsof these
take off greater Quantities of our Commodities and Manufactures, than
if they resided among us. Thus will one of our Countrymen, settled in
America, furnish Employment for many hands in this Kingdom ; and
the Encrease of Labor producing and Encrease of Laborers, it follows that
in this Proportion the whole Nation will be multiplied. It would be need-
less to insist upon the manifold Advantages resulting to this Nation from
her Plantations. The great Men who have the Honor of supplying his
Majesty's Absence, seem fully apprized of them and are, in Consequence,
determined to preserve, in the full Advantages derived from our happy
Constitution, those valuable Parts of the British Dominions. The great
Lord Bacon calls it, " Impious and wicked to abandon a Plantation once
" in Forwardness ; for, besides the Dishonor, it is meer Treachery, and
" being guilty of Blood of so many miserable Men." Indeed, as Obe-
dience is required of those who are most remote, as well as those who
are nearest the Center of Government, so, whether we view it in a
moral or political Light, they are entitled to the same Protection and
Encouragement. The pacific Measures hitherto pursued by our Court,
as they were doubtless for good Reasons, and will now Justify them in
using rougher Expedients, so we may reasonably suppose that the late vi-
gorous and secret Steps were the Result of a Train of shrewd and politic
Schemes ; for I cannot imagine but they lie deeper than fitting out a Fleet
or two, or taking a few Ships, and then supposing that it will fright our
enemies into Submission : No, a general Resentment seems to prevail,
and we have Reason to to conclude, that our Looks will be followed by
Blows, and one Blow follow another, till they are reduced to the Neces-
ity of regarding their Word. It is with Pleasure, therefore, I suppose
the Strength and Weakness of the Enemy is fully considered, and the Temper
and Ability of this Nation to support War thoroughly weighed, and the
whole ministerial Projects, many of them perhaps at some Distance as
to the Execution, but all depending on and contributing to the Success of
the whole. It is with Pleasure, I say, I observe a steady Resolution of
preserving, in all its Parts, the British Empire, as of old among the
Greeks and Romans : Like theirs, our Constitution is of a mixed Nature,
though it may without Partiality be affirmed to be more happily com-
pounded, since Majesty and Liberty trespass not on each other, the Pre-
rogative of the Prince being without Restraint where it is exerted for the
Good of his Subjects ; and the equivalent Prerogative being this, That
the Prince can do no Hurt.


NAPLES, August 1

We have received from Sicily an Account of the following
extraordinary Affair. A Merchant of Valermo, to whom the Prince
de Ventimiglia owed 1000 Ducats, not having been able to obtain the
Payment of them, though repeated Application had been made for that
Purpose, at length applied to the Marquis de Fogliani, Viceroy, who sent
for the Prince, and enjoined him to satisfy his Creditor, which was
immediately done at the Prince's Palace ; but upon the Merchant's De-
parture, he was insulted and beaten by the Prince's Servants ; he thereupon
returned to complain to the Prince, who, without hearkening to his Com-
plaints caused him to be thrown out of one of the Windows of his Apart-
ment into the Street ; the Merchant was so bruised by the Fall that he dies
in a few Days after. The Viceroy, upon the first Notice of the Violence
caused a Party of Soldiers to invest the Palace of the Prince, who at the
Head of his Domestics, fired upon them from his Windows and killed se-
ven. To prevent more People being sacrificed by such a determined Per-
son, the Viceroy gave Orders to Fire on the Palace, which was immedi-
ately executed : This obliged the Prince to surrender, with his Domestics.
who confessed before the Judges, that it was by Order of the Prince that
they had mistreated the Merchant. The Marquis de Fogliani thereupon,
in twenty four Hours, caused the Prince to be tried, who was sentenced to
be tried, which was accordingly executed. Several of his Domestics were
hanged and others sent to the Gallies. In Consideration of the Prince's
Birth several of the Noblesse, applied to the Viceroy to respite his Execu-
tion till the King ahd been informed of the Fact ; but the Marquis answer-
ed The King has sent me to do Justice in his Name, I should blush to demand
fresh Orders concerning the Punishment of an atrocious Crime.
The Conduct
of the Viceroy has been approved by all Men of Honor.


Sept. 1 We have long been conjoled and flattered by the French, but not
redressed, they may amuse and divert us with Congresses and Negotiations

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but the Nature of their Government as well as their Politics will not admit
of a long Peace, any more than a long War. They may differable their
Views for a Time in Favor of their Trade, the only Means they have of
repairing the Losses of the last War ; but a long Quiet world would create Fac-
tions at Court, relax the Discipline of the Army, and give their Neighbors
Leisure to provide for their Defence against Ambition. We have
little Reason to imagine that France will relinquish the Measures she has so
steadily pursued for a century past. Circumstances will oblige her to dis-
semble, I say; but the Grandeur of the Monarch appears the ultimate Aim
of her Politicians, which is serviceable to the Crown and Court, as it is ruinous
to the Kingdom, and burdensome to all of Europe. To expect therefore that
Lewis will adhere to Treaties, and abandon his Ambition, is to expect what
wise men wish for, but fools never hope to see.

As the engrossing, subduing or subjecting several Countries under one
Potentate, is attended with numerous Inconveniencies, we are certainly to
watch with a jealous Eye over the Independency of the Powers of Europe;
but when any infringement upon our Commerce or Plantations becomes the
Question, this Nation is to hold it in peculiar Regard. Trade is that Tye
by which the several and most distant Parts of our Dominions are connected
and kept together ; by it, they all become Parts of the same Whole, and re-
ceive not only Countenance and Protection, but Warmth and Nourishment
from the vital Organs of our Constitution, of which the words of an ele
gant Writer, our Monarchy is the Head, and our Liberty the Soul. Whatever
therefore assists, promotes, and extends our Trade and Plantations, is consist-
ent with our Interest ; and every Infringement, Clog or Encroachment on
these, is repugnant thereto. But our M----stry gives us the strongest Demon-
strations of being determined to do the Nation Justice by the vigorous Pre-
parations they are now making ; and I doubt it will appear, that their paci-
fic Conduct hitherto was neither owing to Want of Skill or Courage, but
to a noble Contempt of Glory ; and that they can manage the Helm in a
Storm as well as in fair Weather.

Extract of a Letter from Dunkirk

" On the Morning of the next Day I took a Walk through the Town
to the entrance of the Harbor ; and made such Observations as I could
with Safety, which I send you as under. On the right Side going into the
Harbor there is a very strong Battery called the Ris-Bank, which was for-
merly destroyed by the Treaties of Utrecht and Aix-la-Chapelle ; this Bat-
tery, in Breach of these Treaties, they have now built a-new, in Form of
a Half-Moon, on which there are mounted twenty two heavy Cannon fac-
ing the Harbor's Mouth, with Embrasseurs for several more ; and on that
Part of the Fortification they have a great many Men at Work ; to me it
appears formerly to have been a Redoubt. On the other Side of the Har-
bor, about two or three Furloughs from its Entrance, they are raising a large
Rampart on which is to be erected a Battery, which will mount 50 or 60
Pieces of cannon, facing the Sea ; they form this Rampart by driving with
heavy Mauls large Stakes of Wood into the Ground in Rows, which they
bind with Fascines, and fill up the open Space betwixt the Rows with large
Stones and Earth, which will make it excessively strong. This Battery is
pretty far advanced, and will be soon finished, as I think from what I saw
that they cannot have less than 2000 Men employed on it, with 3 or 400
Wheel-Carraiges. The Name it goes by is the Bavarian Battery. A little
to the eastward of it they have begun to errect another in the same Manner,
the Name of which I have heard, but can't now recollect it, they have a-
bout 1000 Men employed on it with Carraiges, and it is said it will soon be
finished. They are also repairing the Sluices, in Order to form a back
Water for cleaning and deepening the Harbor ; and I am credibly informed
there is a Plan laid down for making wet and dry Docks for Shipping, and
and Estimate of the Expence it will cost is made, which has been sent up to
Versailles, and that they only wait to King's Approbation for beginning
the Work. They have now in the Town Eight Battalions of Foot, and
one Regiment of Horse, with one of the Artillery ; the greatest Part
of which the Troops are employed in the different Works carrying on.
Here were two Regiments of Foot more, but a Day or two before our Ar-
rival they marched out of Town to join the camp, which they call Camp
of Pleasure, formed in Flanders, under the Command of the Prince de Sou-
bize Governor of that Country. I have given you a Description so far as I
have seen or heard, concerning the Matters going forward at Dunkirk, and
hope it will not be unacceptable ; for my own Part I cannot see how a
War with them can be avoided, for what they are doing here is a downright
Breach of the most solemn Treaties, and if Nations are not to be bound by
Treaties, in what Manner are they to be bound? We are to go to War, I
wish it may be soon ; for we can lie here and take every Thing that comes
into this Port, nor can they hurt us from the Shore with their Cannon ;
so it is to me a Surprize that during the last War there were not two or three
Ships of 20 Guns entered here, which would have quite blocked up the
Port, and prevented any going either in or out; I mean only during the
the Summer Season,for the Road would not answer it in Winter."

Sunday last being the Day appointed by the Charter of this City,for e-
lecting a Mayor, John Randolph, Esq; was chosen into that Office for the
ensuing year.
We have received an Account of the following Gentlemen being elected
Burgesses, to serve in the next General Assembly, viz.
For New Kent, Mr.James Power, Mr. Richard Adams.
For York Mr. Dudley Digges, Mr. Robert Carter Nicholas.
As we intend to inform the Public of the Several Elections, Shall take it
as a Favor, if the Sheriffs will send us the Names of the Gentlemen elected for
each County, as soon as possible.

To be SOLD, the Third Day of January next ;
Fifty Eight SLAVES on Three Months Credit, at a place called Joseph's
Swamp, in Sussex County : Also several Horses, Stock of Cattle and Sheep.
Benjamin Harrison, Wakefield.

October 3 1755.
Taken up by the Subscriber, living in Chesterfield County, a Bay Mare, with an
hanging Mane and Sprig Tail, one hind foot white, and branded X. She has
been posted and appraised, at Three Pounds. The owner may have her of me, paying as
the Law directs. Henry Bates

Column 2

The Governors of [?]
long standing upon the College Books, have given it their Opinion that a proper
Person ought to be employed to collect the same, and likewise recommended for that
Purpose, John Palmer, Attorney at Law in Williamsburg ; Accordingly the President and
Masters have employed the said John Palmer to collect the same,and all Persons are de-
sired to make speedy Payment.
The Surveyors also, who have not lately settled their Accounts with the Bursar are req-
uired immediately to do so, and all of them are to take Notice, that unless they are
regular in settling for the future, their Bonds will be sued, and their Commissions super-
Thomas Dawson, President

By the Honorable Robert Dinwiddie, Esq; His
Majesty's Lieutentant Governor, and Commander in Chief, of the
Colony and Dominion of Virginia :
To all to whom these Presents shall come, Greeting.
hereas Complaint hath this day been made to me, by Captain Carter Harrison,
That the following Persons have deserted from his Company,
Richard Wood, a Virginian of a fair Complexion, well made, five Feet nine Inches
high and twenty Years of Age.
Charles Carter, a Virginian, of a fair Complexion, well made, twenty three Years of
Age,and five Feet nine Inches high.
Frances Roberts a Virginian, of a swarthy Complexion, five Feet nine Inches high
well set, twenty three Years of Age.
Thomas Hensley, a Virginian, of a fair Complexion, well set, twenty Years of Age, five
Feet nine inches high.
James Thomson, a Virginian, of a swarthy Complexion, five Feet ten Inches high, and
twenty three Years of Age.

THESE are therefore in His Majesty's Name, to require and command all Sheriffs,
Constables, and other His Majesty's large People, within this Colony, to make diligent
Search and Pursuit, by Way of Hue and Cry, after said Deserters, and them
having found, to apprehend and carry before any one of His Majesty's Justices of the
Peace within this Colony, to be dealt with according to Law.
GIVEN under my Hand, and the Seal of the Colony at
Williamsburg, the Fifth
Day of December,One Thousand Seven Hundred and Fifty-Five, in the Twenty-ninth Year of His Majesty's Reign.


To Be SOLD at York-Town, next York Court-Day,
being the 14th Instant ;

The SLOOP Stephen and John with all her Rigging,
Tackle and Apparel, now lying at West-Point. Three
Months Credit giving Bond and Security to
Stephen Bingham.

DESERTED from Capt. David Bell's Company of the VirginiaRegiment, the
following recruits,viz.
Bryan Raleigh, an Irishman born, 23 Years of Age, 5 feet 5 Inches high, of a
dark Complexion, with black Hair, has a down Look, and slow of Speech, He is a
Laborer or Planter.
John Brownan Irishman born, 33 Years old, 5 Feet 8 Inches high, of a fair Complexion,
and brown hair, has very much of the Irish Brogue, had on a green Coat with a red
Cape, by Trade a Taylor.
Peter Brinkley, born in Nansemond, 5 Feet 7 Inches high, of a fair Complexion, has
brown Hair, 25 Years of Age, he had on the Virginia Regimentals, and may endeavour
to pass for a Recruiting Officer.
John Peritt, born in Nansemond County, 6 Feet high, about 23 Years of Age, he is of
a black Complexion, and straight black Hair, and had on a light blue Camblett coat, by
Trade a Hatter.
Dennis Dowlin, an Irishman, 6 Feet 2 Inches high, about 27 Years old, of a black
Complexion, and black Hair, bred a Sailor, and had on a Pea Jacket and Trowsers
without either Stockings or Shoes, has a remarkable hoarse voice.
They went of the 10th Instant together, and it is supposed intend to the upper Parts
of North Carolina, as they were seen on the 14th and 15th Instant, near StauntonRiver
in Lunenburg County.
Whoever apprehends any of the above Deserters, (or either of those formerly advertised)
and delivers them to any Officer of the Virginia Regiment, or to Archibald Cary, Esq; at
Warwick in Chesterfield County ; Mr. John Lewis at Albemarle Court-house, or, the
said Capt. Bell shall receive two Pistoles Reward for each.
David Bell

THERE has been concealed by the Overseer at one of my Plantations, for some Time
as I am informed, a Steer which the owner on ascertaining his Property may have
of me ; he has the following Marks, viz. All of his Feet are white, and Ancle of the left
Leg is black, and a black Spot opposite near the Flank ; cross the Shoulder is white, and
a Streak of white cross the joining of the Fillet ; his Back is black, and the under Part of
his Belly white ; has a Crop and Underkeel in the right Ear, and two Underkeels in the
Phillip Ludwell

TAKEN up by the Subscriber, living in Gloucester County, a light colored grey Mare,
about 23 Hands and a Half high, she has a hanging Mane and Switch tail, and
branded on the near Buttock K. The Owner may have her of me, on paying as the
Law directs.
Joseph Eggleston.

A TRACT of Land, containing six Hundred Acres, lying in the Forks of Mechumpion
Creek, in Hanover County within two Miles of the Court-house, a Plantation [?]
it, in good Order for Cropping, a good Apple Orchard, a large Dwelling-House, Kitchen,
Store-house, with a Brick Cellar under it, and several convenient Out-houses. Any
Person inclined to purchase may know the Terms by applying to me living on the Pre-
mises. Nicholas Meriwether

RAN away about the 8th of August, from the Subscriber in Westmoreland County,
a Negro Wench named Patience about 30 Years of Age, had on when she went
away, a Virginia Cloth Wastecoat and Petticoat, and carried with her a chequer'd Waste-
coat turned up with stripp'd Persian. Whoever brings her to me, shall have Two Pi
stoles Reward, besides what the Law allows.
William Booth

IMPORTED in the Charming A[?], Capt. Baker, last Februarya small
marked MT, No.1, for which no Bill of Lading was given, The Own
to Capt. Baker, at York, may hear of it.

A MAN well recommended, who can teach Reading, Wri
will meet with good Encouragement, by applying to

Page 4
Column 1

TAKEN up by the Subscriber living in the City of Williamsburg, a brindled Cow
mark's with a Crop in her Right Ear, and an Underkeel in the Left ; she has a black
young Bull Calf. The Owner may have her of me paying as the Law directs.
Elizabeth Wyatt.
TAKEN up by the Subscriber living in Neck of Land in Chesterfield County, two Stray
Mares, the one a small Sorrel, with a hanging Mane and Sprig tail, a small
white Snip in her Forehead, and branded on the off Buttock MC in a Piece. The other
an Iron grey, with a hanging Mane and Sprig tail, and branded on the near Buttock
thus '.' they have both been posted and appraised, the Sorrel to thirty Shillings, and the
Iron grey to forty five Shillings current Money. The Owner may have them of me,
paying as the Law directs.
Tarleton Woodfin.
TAKEN up by the Subscriber, living near Freeman's Bridge in SussexCounty, a
red Steer, marked with a smooth Crop in the right Ear, and a half Crop in the
Left, he is about 12 Years old, and has been posted and appraised. The Owner may have
him of me, paying as the Law directs.
John Mason..
TAKEN up by the Subscriber, in Culpeper County two Steers, one a large dark
Brindle, unmark'd, with a white Spot on each hind Thigh, a white Spot at the
Root of his Horns, and some white Spots about his Belly, has been posted and appraised
at Three Pounds. The other is of a red Color, with a white Face, red round his Eyes, and
several white Spots on his Body ; he has been posted and appraised to Two Pounds Ten
Shillings Current Money. The Owner may have them of me, on paying as the Law
Richard Vausler.
RAN away from the Subscriber, the latter End of April last, a small, neat, well made
AngolaNegro Fellow named London, about five Feet 5 or 6 inches high, as he
was imported very young, he speaks very good English, about thirty Years old, has a very
round Visage, and a full Beard, he is of middling dark Complexion. Also run away
from the Subscriber's Plantation in King WilliamCounty, the latter end of last September
another Fellow named Sam Drysdale, about forty Years old, about five Feet 7 or 8 Inches
high, has lost some of his under fore Teeth, he is Virginia born, and formerly belonged to
the late Commissary Blair. Whoever will apprehend the said Runaways, and bring them
to the Subscriber in New Kent, shall have three Pistoles Reward for each if taken in this
Government, and five Pistoles for each, if taken in any other.
Daniel Parke Custis.
TAKEN up by the Subscriber, living in Spotsylvania County, a small bright Bay mare
with a black Mane and Tail, a small white Spot in her Forehead, and sundry Sad
dle Spots on each Side of her Back, branded near the Buttock W. She has been
posted and appraised at Three Pounds. The Owner may have her, on proving his Pro-
perty, and paying as the Law directs.
John Waller.
TAKEN away from the Subscriber, in Henrico County, by a Man who called him-
self Thomas Buckner, he is a small Man of a black Complexion, who 'tis believed
lives in Culpeper County, a Bay Horse, about 14 Hands and an Inch high, a
natural Pacer, branded on the Shoulder and Buttock S within a Heart. Whoever
brings the said Horse to me, shall have a Pistole Reward, and two Pistoles for the
William Harding.
Just Imported, by the Subscriber, in the Montgomery
Capt.Patterson, and to be Sold at his Shop, near the

ACHOICE and Large Parcel of Drugs and Medicines, faithfully prepared by the
best Hands in London ; consisting of Sarfa and China Roots, best Rhubarb, Cam-
phire, Opium, Aloes, Borax, Mercury, Antimony, and Jesuits Bark, Ipecacuana, Sperma
Ceti, Oil of Turpentine, Hartsthorn Shavings, French and Pearl Barley, Verdigrease,
Manna, flaky ditto, Balsam Capivi, Spanish Flies, etc., etc. Also ,em>Andersonand
Lockyer'sPills, Squire'sand Stoughton's Elixirs, Bateman's Drops, Godfrey's Cordial,
choice Eating Oil, best Lancets, Annodyne Necklaces, Eaton'sStyptic, Lavender and
Hungary Waters,James Powders, Spanish Liquorice, Castile Soap, Ivory and Pewter
Syringes, Glyster Pipes, Vial and Vial Corks, Cinnamon, Cloves, Mace, Nutmegs,
Black Pepper, Allspice, Ginger,Turlington'sBalsam, Sage, Copperass, Saltpetre, Allum
and all Sorts of Garden Seeds.
Peter Hay.
N.B. Any Person inclinable to purchase the whole with the Shop Utensils, may have
a Pennysworth for ready Money, or Credit giving Security.
TAKEN up by the Subscriber, living in Lunenburg County, near the Court-House,
a Sorrel Horse, his Mane and Tail resemble a Flaxen Color, several Saddle
Spots, and branded thus X. The Owner may have him, on paying as the Law directs.
William Lidderdale
To be SOLD to the highest Bidder, at the Door of
Raleigh Tavern, in Williamsburg, on the Second
Tuesday in Decembernext,
Valuable Tract of Land, formerly belonging to John Stewart,containing 650 Acres,
luing on Cob Creek, in Lunenburg County ; it is all very fine rich Land, and a great
Part of it very fine large Meadow; there are several good Houses and other Improvements
on the said Land. The Purchaser will be allowed Six Months Credit, and may enter
upon the Premises immediately ; Five per Cent. will be allowed for ready Money.
Charles Turnbull.
To be LET, and ENTERED on immediately,
VERY commodius Dwelling-House, with a Well of very good Water, Out-
Houses, Garden pailed in, and other Conveniences, in perfect good Order, and
yrev convenient for a private Family, or Lodgers, and situated in one of the most agree-
able Parts of Town: Also one other very good Dwelling -House, well-accomodated
with Out-Houses, Garden, Well, fine large Stable and Coach-House, etc. situate on
the main Street, the lower side of the Market Place.
Phillip Ludwell
To be SOLD,
WO Lots in the Town of Fredericksburg, fronting the main Street, opposite to
Warehouse, whereon there is a convenient Dwelling-House, with
three of which are Fire Rooms, as also a Kitchen, Stable, Meat
House, and large commodious Warehouse, the whole pailed in.
purchase may apply to William Cunningham in Falmouth or

Column 2

TAKEN up by the Subscriber in Surry County, a middle siz'd Sorrel Mare, branded
on the near Buttock H, all her feet white, has been appraised at [illegible] Pound
ten Shillings. The owner may have him of me paying what the Law directs.
Henry Watkins.
TAKEN up by the Subscriber, living on Appomattox River, in AmeliaCounty, two
Hogs, one a white Sow, the other a black Barrow, marked with a Crop on each
Ear ; the Sow has had Pigs since taken up. The owner may have them of me, paying as the
Law directs.
David Greenbill.
TAKEN up by the Subscriber, living near Amelia Court-house, a large bay Horse,
about Five Feet Eight Inched high, neither branded or mark'd to be observed.
The Owner may have him of me, on paying as the Law directs.
Thomas Wren
TAKEN up by the Subscriber, living in Albemarle County, a Bay Mare, branded
on the near Shoulder H, and one the near Buttock M. The Owner may have her
of me, paying as the Law directs.
John Allen.
THERE is in the Subscriber's Plantation, in Fairfax County, a large red and white
Steer his hind parts white, marked with a Crop and Slit in the Right Ear. The
Owner may have him again of me, paying as the Law directs.
James King
TAKEN up by the Subscriber living near Culpeper County, one red Steer, about two
Years old, has a little white on one of his Flanks,and was appraised at one Pound
five Shillings. The Owner may have him of me, paying as the Law directs.
Benjamin Case.
TAKEN up by the Subscriber living in Goldwine-Creek, in Louisa County, a Bay
Horse, about 4 Feet 4 Inches high, and branded on the near Buttock 1M, very
[illegible] The Owner may have him of me, paying as the Law directs.
Richard Efler.
NOW in the Public Gaol of this City, a Negro Man, names James, who says he
belongs to Adam Porter, in North Carolina ; He hath been in WarwickGaol two
Months, according to Law. The Owner may have him of me, on paying Charges.
Thomas Penman, K.P.G.
To be Sold,at Public Auction, Pursuant to the
Will of
Issac Bates,deceas'd
OUR Hundred and Eighty seven Acres of Land, lying in YorkCounty, about seven
Miles from Williamsburg, near Fleming Bates's,on both Sides of the Road that leads
from Glass's Ordinary to York River, well wooded and watered; The Sale to be on the
second Tuesday in December next, before Mr. Duncastle's Door, in Williamsburg. Credit
will be allowed 'til the 10th day of April next, on giving Bond and Security as usual. Any
Person that hath a Mind to purchase, and is willing to view the land, may be shewed
any Part of it, by applying to Fleming Bates, who has already promised to do that Fa-
vor, for
George Carrington, Executor.
VirginiaALMANACK, for the Year of our LORD GOD, 1756
Being BISSEXTILE or LEAP-YEAR. Wherein are contained, the Lunations
Conjunctions, Eclipses ; the Sun and Moon's Rising and Setting ; the Rising, Setting.
and Soothing of the Heavenly Bodies ; Weather ; Court days ; an exact List of the
English Navy ; a List of the Council and House of Burgesses, of Virginia ; a Summary
of the whole House of Commons ; several useful Tables ; Description of the Roads
through the Continent ; Description of the Road to the Ohio ; Poetry ; Prudential Ad-
vice, etc. etc. Calculated according to Art ; and referred to the Horizon
of the 38 Degrees North Latitude, and a Meridian of Five Hours West from the City of London ; fitting
Virginia, Maryland, North-Carolina, &amp. By THEOPHILUS WREG, Philomax.
[Price Seven Pence Half-penny each, or, Five Shillings per Dozen.]
raising the Sum of &pound.6875, for the further Protection of his Majesty's Sub-
jects against the Insults and Incroachments of the French, in Pursuance of an Act
of Assembly, passed the 9th Day of July last.
This LOTTERY consists of 25,000 tickets at 21 s. 6 d. each, 2050 of which
are Prizes, of the following Value :
Number of Prizes. Value in Current Money. Total Value.
1 of &pound.2000 &pound.2000
1 of 1000 1000
4 of 500 2000
5 of 200 1000
6 of 150 900
8 of 100 200
15 of 50 750
50 of 20 1000
150 of 10 1500
1810 of 5 9050
2030 Prizes amounting to &pound.20000 Total Value.
22950 Blanks.
25000 pistoles, at 21 s. 6 d. each is &pound.26375
To be paid in Prizes, 20000
&pound.6875 to be applied to the particular
Purposes by the said Act directed, for the Protection of the Country.
If 20,000 Tickets are disposed of by the 11th Day of December next, the drawing of
the Lottery will then begin at the Capitol, in Williamsburg ; and the Tickets remaining
unsold will be drawn on Account, and for the Benefit, of the Country ; but if there
should be more than 5000 Tickets remaining unsold on that Day, then the drawing of
the said Lottery is to be put off 'til the 6th day of [illegible] next.
As soon as the Drawing is finished, the Prizes will be published in the Gazette, and
the Money paid to the Possessors of the fortunate Tickets, if demanded in Six Months after :
But the Prizes, not Demanded in that Time, will be deemed as generously given for the
Use of the Country, and be applied accordingly.
The Persons following are appointed Managers of the Lottery, ,em>viz. John Robinson,
Charles Carter, Peyton Randolph Esqrs. and Landon Carter, Carter Burwell, Benjamin
and James Power, Gentlemen, who have given Bond and Security, and are on
Oath, for the faithful Performance of their Truth.
TICKETS are to be sold by the said Managers, at their respective Dwellings.

RG: Printed by William Hunter, at the GENERAL POST-OFFICE ; by
ay be supplied with this Paper. Advertisements of a moderate Length are inserted for Three
st Week, and Two Shillings each Week after.

Original Format

Ink on paper




Hunter, William, -1761, printer., “The Virginia Gazette, no. 256, December 5, 1755,” Special Collections, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, accessed May 23, 2022,

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