Virginia Gazette, no. 1430, August 28, 1778

Dublin Core

Title

Virginia Gazette, no. 1430, August 28, 1778

Date

Identifier

Text Item Type Metadata

Text

Page 1

THE VIRGINIA GAZETTE,
The Freedom of the Press is one of the great Bulwarks of Liberty, and can never be restrained but by despotic Governments.
[AUGUST 28, 1778.] WILLIAMSBURG: Printed by Dixon & Hunter. [No. 1430.]

Column 1

PARIS April 20
ACCORDING to authentic letters from Toulon, count d'Efting sailed
from that place the 13th instant with his squadron consisting of 13 ships
of the line and five frigates, on board which were embarked [illegible] bomb shells,
six mortars, other military stores, and [illegible]
and provisions for six months; but their place of destination is a secret.

Before the departure of this fleet, a bed of crimson damask, laced with gold,
was put in the largest ship, in an apartment richly furnished and decorated. It
was known that some persons of distinction were to occupy that apartment and
we likewise heard of their arrival at Aix, from whence they are to go to La
Seme, a village in the neighbourhood of Toulon, the place designed for them
to embark at. This embarkation was made with the most profound mystery,
and the public can only yet form conjectures on the subject. Secrecy has been
no less observed in regard to the real destination of the squadron; it is presumed
only to be pretty remote, from the quantities of provisions that have been em-
barked. Each ship is provided with three sets of sails.

April 21. Many conjectures are formed of the declination of the Toulon
fleet. Some persons apprehend they are gone to [illegible], as the conquest of
that island they think would materially affect the public credit at home. Some
of the ministry think they are bound to North America, and they tremble for
the fate of both lord and general Howe.

April 29. Though mess. Girard and Deane failed with the count d'Estaing,
yet they were not the persons for whom the grand department was fitted up.
The count himself keeps the key of his apartment, and two persons, who
arrived at a particular post the evening before, embarked masked on board
this vessel.

BERLIN, April 5: The king reviewed all the regiments of our garrison on
the plains of Charlottenburg, and expressed the highest satisfaction at the ap-
pearance they made. After the review, he addressed all the general officers
present, among whom were this royal brothers, and prince Ferdinand of Brun-
swick, in the following manner:
"GENTLEMEN,
Most of us have served together from our earliest days, and are grown
gray in the service of our country; we consequently know each other perfectly
well. We have [illegible] of war and I
make no doubt but you are as unwilling to [illegible]
dominions are now threatened; my duty, as a king, obliges me to protect my
subjects, and to take the [illegible] and efficacious measures to disperse, if
possible, the storm that [illegible] them. To effect those important purposes,
I rely upon that zeal for m service, and that attachment to my person, which
you have always expressed, and which I never yet failed to experience at your
hands; and you may rest assured, gentlemen, that I shall ever acknowledge,
with a heart-felt satisfaction, the services that I am sure you will render to your
king and country. But let me entreat you never to lose sight of humanity,
even when your enemies are in your power, and to cause the most exact disci-
pline to be observed by the troops under your command. For my part, I wish
not to travel like a king. Rich and gawdy equipages have no charms for me.
But as infirm as I now am, I cannot travel as I formerly did, when in the
vigour of youth I shall be obliged to use a post chaise, and I leave you at
liberty to do the same; but in the day of battle you shall see me on horseback,
and I hope that my generals will not fail, in that, to imitate their king.”

After bis majesty had finished this address, the minister of the war depart-
ment declared that the king had been graciously pleased to order presents to be
made in the following proportion to all the officers of the army, to enable them
to equip themselves for the camp:

To every general five hundred six dollars; to every colonel two hundred; to
every major one hundred and fifty; to every captain one hundred; to every
lieutenant eight ;to every ensign sixty. And that the pay of all the troops,
from the day they take the field, shall be augmented one forth, as well in
money and provisions.
The king's departure is fixed for the 7th.

LONDON, April 23.
THIS morning, at seven o'clock, their majesties set off, by land, for Ports-
mouth, to review the grand naval fleet, now lying at Spithead, and
which, when joined by some ships ordered round from Chatham and the Nore,
it is said, will consist of 42 sail of the line. As their majesties were to travel
at the rate of twelve miles in an hour, and only one hour was to be allowed
for changing of horses, they were expected to arrive there by two o'clock.
They are to lie at the commissioner's house, and return to town on Monday
evening.

Thursday orders were sent down to Portsmouth for no foreigner of any nation
to be suffered to go into any of his majesty's docks; and the same orders were
likewise sent to Chatham.

Column 2

[illegible] com-
mand of the fllet,and was saluted at the platform with 15 guns. The same
day all the small vessels, transports, and merchant ships, that lay at Spithead,
were ordered to remove into Stoke's bay and the Motherbank, in order to make
room for the men of war to form themselves into a line of battle.

The following admirals have their flags now flying at Spithead, viz
Admiral Keppel, 90 guns, Prince George.
Harland, 90 Queen.
Palliser, 90 Ocean.
Pye 80 Princess Amelia.
Barrington [illegible] Prince of Wales.
Parker 74 Royal Oak.
Montague 64 Europe.

HOUSE COMMONS MAY 26.
MR. alderman WILKES moved that general Burgoyne should give an account
at large of what had happened within his service, as a public man, from the
time he went to America til he left that continent.

Sir WILLIAM MEREDITH objected to motions criminating the [illegible]
who had acted, not like men who here ignobly and ingloriously [illegible]
country to bloodshed and destruction, but had ventured his life and [illegible] services.

Mr.WILKES rising up to explain, said I lay no charge to the honourable
general; I was the echo of the public voice, which says, the Saratoga [illegible]
der of a whole British army was ignominious and disgraceful to the [Illegible] of
England, and of all Europe; I therefore wish that the honourable general be
brought to a fair trial.

Mr. GEORGE GRENVILLE wished to rivive the committee on the state of
the nation, now dissolved, that the Canada papers might lie before them.

Mr. CHARLES FOX said, that the same papers might be referred to a new
Committee, which he would prefer, because he hoped the same resolutions
would not be passed. He was for a thorough and complete investigation; he
was apprehensive that upon certain questions being asked, the spirit of the ho-
nourable general would lead him to go into the detail for his own justification,
and from his openness and candour, he wished to state the motion so as to take
in openly [illegible] unreserved discussion of these melancholy events. The
[illegible] worthy alderman had said, ignominious,
[illegible] the occasion of that ignominy, whether the general or the
military.

[

illegible] NUGENT delivered a warm panegyrick on the gallantry of general
Burgoyne and his military talents, but at the same time endeavoured to justify
lord George Germaine, and to call to the recollection of the house that the
secretary of state for the colonies, in justifying his own part of the business,
had uniformly avoided saying a syllable to prejudice the character of Mr. Bur-
goyne. He was against the enquiry, particularly from the absence of generals
Howe and Carleton, who might be involved in the matter.

Mr. alderman Wilkes's motion was then read by the speaker, which was to
this purpost: " That the house go into a committee on the state and present
[illegible] of the army which surrendered at Saratoga, and on what conditions
guneral Burgoyne returned to Great Britain."

An amendment was then moved by Mr. Fox, and seconded by Mr. Powys,
to consider all the factions of the British army under general Burgoyne.
Mr. Powys [illegible] the enquiry had been at first suspended, but the house
having before come to certain resolutions against the honourable gentleman now
of his defence, it was due to the honourable gentleman, and to his country,
though all parties perhaps concerned were not present; but the exculpation of
the minister was the accusation of the honourable general. He had wished to
have no share in this enquiry; but finding that government had, in fact, esta-
blished a perfectly good conduct on the supposed errors or misbehaviour of the
general, he wished to ascertain the truth.

Mr. CORNWALL said, that as the question was so put in the former com-
mittee, on this transaction of Saratoga, the fault (and a very great and serious
one it was) must lie either upon the minister for the colonies, or the general.
He thought both blameless and praise worthy. The evil lay in the fatality and
incertitude of human affairs, and the chance of war. He thought it likewise
improper, on account of the concession of the honourable member, from his
[illegible] and honourable sentiments, to enter on this inquisition; and he thought
it improper and unjust to urge the honourable gentlemen on a subject so deli-
cate and so important to himself. He thought the court of enquiry of general
officers now named, and perhaps a future court martial, would be proper, but
the house incompetent to the trial; it never had been done, and instanced
former miscarriages, particularly Matthews and Leftock, thirty years ago.

General BURGOYNE said he understood the gentlemen who made the mo-
tion would propose questions. He intended to end with a motion of his own
to include the whole of these questions, but as the debate seemed to take a dif-
ferent turn, he would be for the amendment. He felt occasion to invoke, in

Page 2
Column 1
times unequal, bad been exposed. He stood unconnected and unsupported,
neither courting nor fearing party, on the basis of truth and his own honour,
to answer [illegible]. Wilkes upon the Indian alliance, which he had always at best
considered as a necessary evil. He determined to go the soldier of the state, not
the executioner. Upon these principles he had conducted himself, notwith-
standing what was alledged by his enemies to the contrary. He had been
obliged to run a race with the congress in securing the alliance of the savages;
they courted they courted and tempted them with presents, as well as the British; [illegible] had
in more instances than one controuled the Indians. In this town there [illegible]
a mr. Luc, formerly in the French service, now in the service of Great Britain,
who has merit. He wished that gentleman, instead of accusing him (the ge-
neral) of barbarities, had been called to the bar of this house, He is an ambi-
tious and a fortunate man. Instead of attacking a general unfortunate and
unfashionable, he wished the noble lord at the head of American affairs, with
whom mr. Luc was very familiar, would state the substance of mr. Luc’s alle-
gations against him. Discharge the Indians he did, but in fact mr. Luc and the
[illegible]. He was near putting that man to an ignominious death,
especially on account of the massacre of that unhappy lady miss Ray. He [illegible]
penned the proclamation, and to hold out terrors, but not to carry them into
execution. The purport of the [illegible] and other questions, he should
now answer.

Mr. [illegible] handed the list of proposed questions, which the general read.

Mr. TURNER then spoke against going into a committee upon this business,
much more against the house going on in the present state of the matter.

Mr. BURGOYNE went on by command of the house, and at his own [illegible],
wishing for the committee on the amendment made hy mr. Fox, because he
would produce papers which would develope the whole affair more fully and
[illegible]; here he could do viva voce. He had spoke handsomely of the
behaviour of his troops to this day, under the most severe trials of mind and
body. He said there had been much desertion, but it would be found an
honourable desertion, if that epithet could be given to desertion; they had left
[illegible] greatly to their credit behind them of signing the motives for their de-
sertion.

He thought it his duty to refute the reasons given by the congress for their
conduct.

He sent a second letter to the congress, soliciting leave to come home, in
case they adhered to their former resolutions.

He read a letter from general Washington to him, part of his speech,
dated “Head quarters, Pennsylvania, March 11, 1778," a most elegant,
generous, and handsome letter to general Burgoyne, [illegible] length.

Coming home was upon his proposal; he never was considered by the con-
vention of Saratoga as a prisoner; but his proposal to come home was to return,
if required by the congress, provided the terms of the convention should be
protracted beyond the probable time. He [illegible] home [illegible] himself
and his fellow soldiers, sufferers under a convention signed by his name [illegible].

A further reason for the committee to proceed was, [illegible] because
his name had been so often and so feriously called [illegible] into debate in that
house, and so freely treated without doors [illegible] idea gone forth was, that
blame. was imputable somewhere; [illegible] were innocent, he was
guilty. He wished every minister to [illegible] himself, for an instant, in his situation.
Finding himself under an interdict, in the presence of his country, where is he
to justify himself so well as in this house? He fought military enquiries; he
was denied them. Why then deny likewise a parliamentary enquiry? The
parliamentary enquiry goes not only to the execution of measures, but the
measures themselves. Much was due to the men and officers under his com-
mand Why was he denied, through ministerial policy, the presence of his
sovereign, to lay their services before him? General Howe indeed had the con-
sideration and goodness to fill up the vacant commissions in the northern army
at his (general Burgoyne's) recommendation; yet they [illegible] meritorious hopes
from the crown.

Here he, with great force of argument and spirit, [illegible] on the dis-
position of some persons to throw all blame off their own shoulders, at the loss
of the honour, and sacrifice of the reputations, of the officers and soldiers of
this country.

He complained that in some parts his orders were superfluous, in others defi-
cient. He again urged the production of his papers.

He disclaimed having any share in taking the command of Canada in any
degree from general Carleton, of whose ability, conduct, and zeal for his
country. no man had a higher sense; he wished all his letters on that head had
been produced, and not partial letters. General Carleton was confirmed in the
government of the Canadian province and army before his commission was
signed or solicited, and he himself thought the appointment perfectly wise of
mr. Carleton. The expedition towards Albany was not his, though the mode
of carrying it on was in great measure his. He proposed a more extensive
and different sytem of war; he totally disavowed the saving clamse in his in-
structions to proceed and cross the Hudson’s river. He proved that general
[illegible] had always joined with him in the constructions of his orders, and in
his plans and hazard of the execution.

Sir William Howe, and general Carlton, with whom he had never differed,
nor expressed nor thought disadvantageously of (far from [illegible] would, he was
sure, be equally ready and anxious to vindicate their conduct as he was. If he
was guilty, he said, he was deeply guilty. Here he spoke most pathetically
and firmly. He called for enquiry; he said he would put not only his life, but
what was dearer to him, his honour, his character, and every thing to the test.

Column 2

He said, whatever might be the error or offence of the general at Saratoga,
the troops under his command, once led on, had so exerted themselves, shown
such fortitude and heroism, as to deserve the public thanks. On their merit
he spoke very forcibly and circumstantially.

Since the catastrophe at Saratoga, and the residence of the northern army at
Cambridge, their deportment had been agreeable to military duty, military ho-
nour, and the honour of their country. He desired an enquiry to see whether
the Americans, on the principles of public faith, are justified in suspending the
capitulation of Saratoga, under presence of an infraction on his part. He com-
pared his [illegible] to that of the Romans. When they passed under the yoke of
the Sabines, whin the general was called before the senate, he made a speech
on his justification, but he ended that speech by desiring that in case the enemy
should unreasonably urge the conditions of peace, the treaty might not be abided
by, but that he might be sent as [illegible] to atone by his death, or be sent in
chains to the enemy. Such a measure he wished for himself with the congress,
if there should [illegible] found the same breach of faith in the enemy. He then re-
ported his wish for an enquiry. He spoke openly and manfully for two hours.

PHILADELPHIA, August 11.
Last Thursday being the day appointed by congress for the audience of
the sieur Gerard, minister plenipotentiary from his most Christian ma-
jesty, that minister received audience accordingly. In pursuance of the cere-
monial established by congress, the honourable Richard Henry Lee, esq; one
of the delegates from Virginia, and the honourable Samuel Adams, esq; one
of the delegates from Massachusetts Bay, in a coach and six provided by con-
gress, waited upon the minister at his house. In a few minutes, the minister
and the two delegates entered the coach, mr. Lee placing himself at the mi-
nister’s left hand on the back seat, mr. Adams occupying the front seat. The
minister’s chariot being behind, received his secretary. The carriages being
arrived at the statehouse in this city, the two members of congress, placing
themselves at the minister's left hand, a little before one o'clock introduced
him to his chair in the congress chamber, the president and congress sitting.
The chair was placed fronting the president. The minister being seated, he
gave his credentials into the hands of his secretary, who advanced and delivered
them to the president. The secretary of congress then read and translated
them; which being done, mr. Lee announced the minister to the president and
congress, when the president, the congress and the minister, rose together.
He bowed to the president and the congress; they bowed to him. Whereupon
the whole seated themselves. In a moment, the minister rose and made a
speech to the congress, they sitting. The speech being finished, the minister
sat down, and giving a copy of his speech to his secretary, be presented it to
the president. The president and the congress then rose, and the president
pronounced their answer to the speech, the minister standing. The answer
being ended, the whole were again seated, and the president giving a copy
of the answer to the secretary of congress, [illegible]. The
president, the congress, and the minister, then again rose together. The mi-
nister bowed to the president, who returned the salute, and then to the con-
gress who also bowed in return. And the [illegible] having again bowed to the
president, and received his bow, he withdrew, and was attended home in the
same manner in which he had been conducted to the audience.

Within the bar of the house the congress formed a semicircle on each side of
the president and the minister, the president sitting at one extremity of the
circle, at a table upon a platform elevated two steps, and the minister sitting
at the opposite extremity of the circle, in an arm chair, upon the same level
with the congress. The door of the congress chamber being thrown open
below the bar, about 200 gentlemen were admitted to the audience, among whom
were the vice president of the supreme executive council of Pennsylvania, the
supreme executive council, the speaker and members of the house of assembly,
several foreigners of distinction, and officers of the army.

Thus has a new and noble fight been exhibited in this new world, the repre-
sentatives of the united states of America solemnly giving public audience to a
minister plenipotentiary from the most powerful prince in Europe. Four years
ago such an event, at so near a day, was not in the view even of imagination.
But it is the Almighty who raised up; he hath stationed America among the
powers of the earth, and clothed her in robes of sovereignty.

The audience being over, the congress and the minister, at a proper hour,
repaired to an entertainment by congress given to the minister; at which were
present, by invitation, several foreigners of distinction and gentlemen of pub-
lic character. The entertainment was conducted with a decorum suited to the
occasion, and gave the most perfect satisfaction to the whole company.

IN CONGRESS, AUGUST 6, 1778.
According to order, the honourable the sieur Gerard being introduced to an
audience by the two members for that purpose appointed, and being seated in
majesty, which was read in the words following:

VERY DEAR, GREAT ERIENDS AND ALLIES,
THE treaties which we have signed with you, in consequence of the pro-
posals your commissioners made to us in your behalf, are a certain assurance of
our affection for the united states in general, and for each of them in particu-
lar, as well as of the interest we take, and constantly shall take, in their hap-
piness and prosperity. It is to convince you more particularly of this that we
have nominated the sieur Gerard, secretary of our council of state, to reside
among [illegible] the quality of our minister plenipotentiary. He is the better
acquainted [illegible] toward you, and the more capable of satisfying

Page 3</h5
Column 1

the same to you, he was entrusted on our part to negotiate with your com-
missioners, and signed with them the treaties which cement our union. We
pray you to give full credit to all he shall communicate to you from us, more
especially when [illegible] shall assure you of our affection and constant friendships for
you. We pray God, very dear, great friends and allies, to have you in his holy
[illegible]. Your good friend and ally, (Signed) LOUIS.
(Undersigned) GRAVIER DE VEGENNES,
VERSAILLES, March 28, 1778.

(Directed)
To our very dear, great friends, the
president and members of tbe ge-
neral congress of North America.

The minister was then announced to the president and the [illegible]; where-
upon he arose and addressed congress in a speech, which, when he had finished,
his secretary delivered the same, in writing, to the president, as follows:

GENTLEMEN,
THE connection formed by the king, my master, with the united states
of America, is so agreeable to him that he could no longer delay sending me to
reside among you for the purpose of cementing it. It will give his majesty
great satisfaction to learn that the sentiments which have shone forth on this
occasion justify that confidence with which he hath been inspired by the zeal
and character of the commissioners of the united states in France, the wisdom
and fortitude which have directed the resolutions of congress, and the courage
and perseverance of the people they represent; a confidence which you know,
gentlemen, has been the basis of that truly amicable and disinterested system
on which he hath treated with the united states.

It is not his majesty's fault that the engagements he hath entered into did not
establish your independence and repose without the further effusion of blood,
and without aggravating the calamities of mankind, whose happiness it is his
highest ambition to promote and secure. But since the hostile measures and
designs of the common enemy have given to engagements purely eventual an
immediate, positive, permanent, and indissoluble force, it is the opinion of the
king, my master, that the allies should turn their whole attention to fulfil those
engagements in the manner molt useful to the common cause, and best calcu-
lated to obtain that peace which is the object of the alliance.

It is upon this principle his majesty hath hastened to send you a powerful
assistance, which you owe only to his friendship, to the sincere regard he has
for every thing which relates to the advantage of the united states, and to his
desire of contributing with efficacy to establish your repose and prosperity upon
an honourable and solid foundation. And further, it is his expectation that the
principles which may be adopted by the respective governments will tend to
strengthen those bonds of union which have originated in the mutual interest
of the two nations.

The principal object of my instructions is to connect the interests of France
with those of the united states I flatter myself, gentlemen that my past con-
duct in the affairs which concern them hath already convinced you of the de-
termination I feel to endeavour to obey my instructions in such manner as to
deserve the confidence of congress, the friendship of its members, and the
esteem of the citizens of America.
GERARD.

To which the PRESIDENT returned the following ANSWER:
SIR,
THE treaties between his most christian majesty and the united states of
America so fully demonstrate his wisdom and magnanimity as to command the
reverence of all nations. The virtuous citizens of America, in particular,
can never forget his beneficent attention to their violated rights, nor cease to
acknowledge the hand of a gracious Providence in raising them up so powerful
and illustrious a friend. It is the hope and opinion of congress that the confi-
dence his majesty reposes in the firmness of these states will receive additional
strength from every day's experience.

This assembly are convinced, sir, that had it rested solely with the most
christian king, not only the independence of these states would have been uni-
versally acknowledged, but their tranquility fully established. We lament that
lust of domination which gave birth to the present war, and hath prolonged
and extended the miseries of mankind. We ardently wish to sheath the sword,
and spare the farther effusion of blood; but we are determined, by every
means in our power, to fulfil those eventual engagements which have
acquired positive and permanent force from the hostile designs and measures of the com-
mon enemy.

Congress have reason to believe that the assistance so wisely and generously
sent will bring Great Britain to a sense of justice and moderation, promote the
common interests of France and America, and secure peace and tranquility on
the most firm and honourable foundation. Neither can it be doubted that those
who administer the powers of government within the several states of this union
will cement that connection with the subjects of France, the beneficial effects
of which have already been so sensibly felt.

Sir, from the experience we have had of your exertions to promote the true
interests of our country as well as your own, it is with the highest satisfaction
congress receive, as the first minister from his most christian majesty, a gentle-
man whose past conduct affords a happy presage that he will merit the confi-
dence of this body, the friendship of its members, and the esteem of the citizens of America.
HENRY LAURENS, president

Column 2

The secretary of congress then delivered to the minister a copy of the fore-
going reply, signed as above; whereupon the minister withdrew, and was con-
[illegible] home in the manner in which he was brought to the house.

Extract from the minutes.
CHARLES THOMSON, secretary.
In CONGRESS, August 8, 1778.
WHEREAS, in pursuance of the recommendation of congress of the 2d
of March last, a volunteer CORPS of CAVALRY from the state of
VIRGINIA, under the command of the honourable general NELSON, are
now in this city, on their way to the army under the command of general
WASHINGTON; and whereas the removal of the enemy from this state ren-
ders the employment of this corps at present unnecessary :
Resolved, that it be recommended to the said corps to return.
Resolved, that the thanks of CONGRESS be returned to the honourable
general NELSON, and the OFFICERS and GENTLEMEN under his command,
for their brave, generous, and patriotic efforts, in the cause of their country.

Extract from the minutes.
CHARLES THOMSON, Secretary.

BALTIMORE, August 18.
"THE private letters of George Johnstone, esq; one of the British com-
missioners, to the honourable Joseph Reed, and Robert Morris, esquires,
members of congress, with mr. Reed's declaration, in his place, of the conver-
sation and offers of a lady in Philadelphia, in behalf of mr. Johnstone having,
on the 11th instant, been taken into consideration by congress, that body, after
reciting the offensive paragraphs, and mr. Reed's declaration, add:
"And whereas the said paragraphs, written and sent as aforesaid by George
Johnstone, esq; and the said declaration made by Joseph Reed, esq; call loudly
upon congress to express their sense upon them, therefore
Resolved, that the contents of the said paragraphs, and the particulars in the
said declaration, in the opinion of congress, cannot but be considered as direct
attempts to corrupt and bribe the congress of the united states of America.
Resolved, that as congress feel, so they ought to demonstrate the highest and
most pointed indignation against such daring and atrocious attempts to corrept
their integrity.
Resolved, that it is incompatible with the honour of congress to hold any
manner of correspondence or intercourse with the said George Johnstone, esq;
especially to negotiate with him upon affairs in which the cause of liberty and
virtue is interested; and for the propriety of such conduct, we make and publish
to the world this our declaration." [These resolves were extracted from a printed
declaration of congress, signed by the president
.]

Admiral Barrington, in the Prince of Wales man of war, of 74 guns, is
arrived at Barbados from England.

WILLIAMSBURG, August 28.
LONDON papers down to the 3d of June advise that the emperor of
Germany and the king of Prussia had both taken the field with amazing
formidable armies, and that there is no longer any talk of war between the
Russians and Turks; that the supplies granted by parliament, the vote of
credit and navy bills included, amount to fourteen millions and an half; that
on the 30th of May an embargo was laid on all ships in the different sea ports
of England, foreign ships excepted, and that this embargo was to continue six
weeks; that there had been a general press for seamen throughout Britain, and
that several thousand seamen were, by that means, obtained for the navy; that
22 sail of the line and 14 frigates lay ready for sea in the road of Brest, 12 of
the former of which were intended, if the motions of the English fleet should
make it necessary, to reinforce the count d'Estaing; that general Howe was
arrived in England; that great changes were immediately expected to take
place in the British ministry; that lord North had been very roughly handled
in the house of commons particularly by mr. T. Luttrell, who accused him
of s somnolency, compared him and his myrmidons to the planet Jupiter and its
satellites, talked of summoning cards, and cutting off heads, &c. and that se-
veral of the minority were likely to get into power and place.

Extract of a letter from a member of congress, dated August 16, 1778.
"By a letter from general Sullivan, dated Portsmouth, Rhode Island. Au-
gust 10 1778, we are informed, that on the morning of the 9th the enemy
abandoned all their work on the north end of the island, in consequence of the
French fleet coming up the river, and immediately thereupon general Sullivan
pushed over all his troops, and took possession of the enemy's works. On the
same day, a fleet of 29 sail, 8 or 10 of which appeared to him to be of force,
were discovered standing in to Newport, under English colours. Count
d'Estaing kept his station, there being little or no wind, but the next morning,
the 10th, he got under way, with a fine breeze, and gave chase, and at 11
o'clock (general Sullivan writes) he had the pleasure to see the British fleet [illegible]
before him. The count left three frigates in the east passage. General Sullivan
adds, that general Hancock, our late amiable and worthy president, had joined
him from Boston, at the head of a number of volunteers. The French fleet,
in passing up the river of Newport, silenced two batteries of the enemy."

Since our last a great number of French vessels have arrived within our
capes, loaded with goods of all sorts.

THOSE gentlemen who send the printer advertisements are desired
[illegible] the money with them, or no notice will be taken of them. The
[illegible] of advertising is 10s, the first week, and 7s.each week after.

Page 4
Column 1

The following is the genuine copy of an advertisement lately printed, and
pasted up in New York at all the public places in the city.

To be SOLD at PRIVATE SALE,
THE British rights in America, consisting of, among other articles,[illegible]
THIRTEEN PROVINCES now in rebellion, which Britain, in tbe [illegible]
of her insolence
, attempted to subdue, the reversion of the government of Quebec,
Nova Scotia, Newfoundland, East and West Florida
, the territory of the Hud-
son's Bay
company, a respectable body of his majesty’s troops, and a consider-
able part of the royal navy, together with all the loyal subjects of America. The
British West Indies will be included in the sale, if agreeable to the purchaser.
Apply to GEORGE JOHNSTONE, esq; who is desirous of concluding a
private bargain. The conditions of sale to be seen in the hands of HENRY
LAURENS, esq; president of congress.
P.S. To make it easy to purchasers, a seat in congress will be taken in part
payment, the rest in continental money.
N. B. Discount will be allowed for all the loyalists which have been mur-
dered since the roth of April, 1773.
***The British army and navy, all printers and news writers, and all mots
and disorderly persons, are forbid to obstruct the sale.

To be SOLD, at DIXON and HUNTER's printing office,
A FEW BOXES of KEYSER'S famous venereal PILLS, with full
directions for uing the same. Also Dr. RYAN's incomparable worm
destroying SUGAR PLUMBS, necessary to be kept in all families,
with directions.

ALL persons who have any demands against the subscriber, an executor of
Lawson Bursoot, deceased, are requested to meet him in Williamsburg on
the 10th of October next, at which time he proposes to be there in order to settle
and pay the several creditors in proportion to their demands.
4∥ JOHN FERGUSSON.

*** The subscriber lost on the road (as he supposes) between Williamsburg
and Back river, on Sunday the 16th instant (August) a RED MOROCCO
POCKET BOOK, which contained 10 or 121. in paper currency, a memo-
randum book covered with red morocco, and a pencil, with sundry papers of
no use to anoother person but himself, except a small bundle containing sundry
vouchers, and an account due from the country to doctor Thomas Hynd, of
Hanover county. A reward of TWENTY DOLLARS will be paid to any
person [illegible] delivering the book, papers, &c. to John Clarkson, esq: postmaster
in Williamsburg, William Moody, jun, near Williamsburg, or Robert Sheild, near
Back river.

To be SOLD to the biggest bidder, on the 4th of September next, at the plantation
of the subscriber, living near
Bowler's ferry,
FOUR likely Virginia born NEGROES, [illegible] a set of blackmith's TOOLS
for ready cash only.
1∥ WILLIAM SHEPHERD.
Essex county, August 10, 1778.

FOR SALE,
A GOOD COACH, also a second hand CHARIOT. Enquire of
the printers.

WILLIAMSBURG, August 18, 1778
THE trustees of John Randolph, esq; having now completed the sale of the
trust-estate, propose to divide the neat amount thereof among the several
creditors on Tuesday the 6th day of October next; for which purpose they with
to meet them here at 10 o'clock in the morning. It is expected that the
claimants either bring or send a slate of their respective demands, with vouchers
to support them. Such as cannot attend themselves are requested to authorise
some other person to act for them, and receive their proportins of the dividend.
Those gentlemen who still remain indebted to the trustees for goods or slaves
bought at the sale are called upon to make immediate payment, otherwise they
will be sued without farther notice from
JOHN BLAIR,
JAMES COCKE,
Trusties.

On the 1st of September, at Jericho, near Suffolk, an ACADEMY will be
opened under the joint direction of the rev. William Andrews and Patrick
Murdock
, who, for the sum of fifteen pounds per annum, propose to instruct
young gentlemen in Latin, Greek, and French, writing, and arithmetick, and
will take the utmost care of the morals of those intrusted to their care. There
are several houses very convenient, at which the students may be boarded. (∥)

I HAVE now to inform the members who composed the copartnery of Joshua
Storrs, Hugh Walter,
& company, that my books are posted up and ex-
amined, the accounts ready to be entered into for a settlement, and the money
ready to be paid each person when the accounts are properly adjusted and ascer-
tained by disinterested men appointed for that purpose. Therefore I would
hope and request that they would not appoint one of their own members to be
judge and executioner too. They are required to meet at Gabriel Galt's,
Richmond
, on Tuesday the 8th of September next.
JOSHUA STORR.

Column 2

Mess. Dixon &amp: HUNTER,
We have for an advertisement repeatedly continued in mr. Purdie's
paper, signed by the wardens of the parish of Saint Paul, in the county
of Hanover, importing that said parith is yet vacant, and inviting a clergyman
thithier. Before the present system of government took place, whilst we con-
demned the measures of the body of which these gentlemen are members, we
were in many instances obliged to submit to their decisions. But as the [illegible]
tive body of this state have now left the people to a free choice, it is not[illegible]
wondered that they should avail themselves of this privilege with respect to the
choice of a minister. This they have done, and we are persuaded the advert-
isers must have known it even before their production appeared in any paper.
However, as such a sum is now raised as is thought adequate, and the [illegible]
are well satisfied with their choice, you are required to publish this, as it
may be necessary in case of an application to a vestry whom, we trust, the
upright guardians of our rights and privileges will soon dissolve.
SAMUEL MEREDITH,
HANOVER, Aug, 12, 1778. JOHN STARKE, jun.
RICHARD CHAPMAN.

KING & QUEEN, August 5, 1778
I intend to leave the colony, for some part of the French
West Indies,
by the first good conveyance. JOSEPH DAVENPORT.

To be SOLD ar public auction, for ready money, on Tuesday the 1st of September
next, pursuant to a decre of
James City court,
THE valuable LIBRARY of John Randolph, esq; Late attorney general,
except a small part thereof taken by mr. John Rowsay, sergeant for the
city of Williamsburg, to satisfy an execution in his hands. This collection con-
sists of upwards of 1100 volumes, and is thought by good judges to be as well
chosen as any in the state. The sale will begin at 11 o'clock in the morning,
at the house where the said John Randolph formerly resided, in the city Williams
burg.
A catalogue of the books, in the mean time, may be seen at Dixon &c
Hunter's
printing office.
∥ LEONARD HENLEY, D. S. James City.

For SALE, at Caroline courthouse, on the second Thursday in October, being
court day, for ready money
,
ABOUT 1600 acres of very valuable LAND on Mattapony river, a great
quantity of which may be made good meadow ground. There is a suffi-
ciency of land cleared to work twenty hands; the rest very well timbered.
There are some improvements, such as would be convenient to the above
mentioned number of hands, and an overseer. Possession will be given at
Christmas. Any person inclinable to purchase will be shown the land by mr.
John Armistead in the said county, or my overseer on the premises.
ROBERT BAYLOR.
*** A few well bred MARES and COLTS will also be sold on the same
day.

To be SOLD on tbe premises, to the biggest bidder, the 10th day of September,
to be entered on tbe 1st of January next, wben tbe purchase money is to be paid
down
,
A PLANTATION in Chesterfield county, on Falling creek, containing 186
acres, whereon are a good dwellinghouse, with necessary outhouses, and
good apple and peach orchards. At the same time and place will be sold, for
ready money, sundry articles of household furniture.
∥ JOHN BAKER.
I should be glad that all persons who have any demands against the estate
of the deceased Tbomas Baker would make them known, that I may provide for discharging them.

WILLIAMSBURG, August 18, 1778.
WHEREAS my room was broke open on Friday night the 14th instant,
and robbed of one hundred and twelve pounds, with sundry papers,
and some accounts against the continent, one of 61. 16s. 6d. with colonel
Mason's warrant on the back of it, a pay roll for 1691. 7s. 8d. against the
commonwealth, sworn to before mr. Edward Charlton the 21st of July, 1778,
and signed by colonel Mason, with several soldiers accounts, sworn to and
signed by colonel Mason and also a 2d lieutenant's commission, dated the 29th
of April, 1778, I hereby offer a reward of ONE HUNDRED DOLLARS for
the discovery of the thief, so that he may be brought to justice, and TEN
DOLLARS will be given for the delivery of the papers.
1∥ EDWARD DIGGES, capt, state gar, regt.

TAKEN up, in the lower end of Goochland, a dark bay mare, 4 feet 8 or 9
inches high, about 9 or 10 years old, with a hanging mane and switch tail.
There is some appearance of a brand on the oss buttock, but so faint that I
cannot make out what it is. Appraised to 401.
∥ CHARLES BATES.

TAKEN up, in Amberst county, a black horse, 4 feet 4 or 5 inches high,
with a star in his forehead, his mane partly roached, shod before, bas a sore
back, paces well, branded on the [illegible] buttock with something resembling an
[illegible] and has on an old bell, with a leather collar. Appraised to 20l.
2∥ LARKIN GATEWOOD.

Original Format

Ink on paper

Collection

Citation

J. Dixon & W. Hunter (Firm), “Virginia Gazette, no. 1430, August 28, 1778,” Special Collections, John D. Rockefeller Jr. Library, Colonial Williamsburg Foundation, accessed December 5, 2021, https://cwfjdrlsc.omeka.net/items/show/21.

Social Bookmarking